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, January, 1896. 
Accession No. (0 [ 0*7 .$ Class No. 




$19 ^Vuthoritu: 








l^eceived, January, 1896. 
Accession No. Class No. 


HANDBOOKS already published by the Royal Commission, which can be 
obtained gratis on application to the Secretary of the Commiss on, 
Public Offices, Melbourne: 

No. 1. "Ensilage." 

No. 2. " Perfume Plants and Essential Oils." 

No. 3. " Viticulture in Victoria." 

No. 4. " Wine Making and Cellar Management" (in hand). 

Applications from vine-growers for the services of the Experts attached 
to the Board of Viticulture should be made to the Secretary of the Board, 
Public Offices, Melbourne. 

Corrections in the Lists of Vine-growers and the acreage planted are 
specially requested. 



Commission on legetable 




/K <& 

1891. Au. 






Preliminary Reasons for issuing .Handbook Necessity for co-operation 
in order to insure greater uniformity in wines of each district 
Example of older wine-producing districts of Europe ... ... xi 

CHAP. I. History and Description of the Vine. 

Root Stem Leaf Flower ... ... ... ... ... 1 

CHAP. II. Physiology. 

Rise of sap Transpiration Assimilation Respiration Flowering 
Fecundation of the ovule Setting of the fruit Ripening of the 
fruit Importance of leaves 

CHAP. III. Factors influencing the Growth and Products of the Vine. 

Necessity of serious consideration on account of our past experience being 
very limited Influence of climate Irrigation of vineyards Influence 
of aspect Division of the colony into three climatic regions Influence 
of soil Influence of variety ... ... ... ... ... 15 

CHAP. IV. Ampelography. 

European vines American vines Indigenous Australian vines ... 29 

CHAP. V. Selection of Site, and Choice of Suitable Varieties. 

Importance of considering the character of wine which it is desired to 
make before selecting site General requirements which should be 
fulfilled by a site Advantages or otherwise of each climatic region ... 66 

CHAP. VI. Preparation of Soil. 

Necessity of deep preliminary cultivation Methods of preparing the 
.soil; subsoiling or trenching Drainage ... ... ... ... 74 

CHAP. VII. Laying-out of Vineyard. 

Distance apart of vines Arrangement of vines Marking out the vine- 
yard Extent and disposition of blocks ... ... ... ... 80 

CHAP. VIII. Propagation of the Vine. 

Propagation by seed Propagation by cuttings Selection of cuttings 
Different sorts of cuttings Length of cuttings Preservation of 
cuttings Stratification Propagation by layers Ordinary layering 
Complete burying of the vine Reversed layering Multiple layering 88 

A ^ 


CHAP. IX. Planting. 

Are cuttings or rooted vines to be preferred ? Planting of cuttings in the 
vineyard Depth for planting Proper time for planting Inclination 
of cuttings Method of planting Plantation of cuttings in a nursery 
Plantation of rooted vines in the vineyard ... ... ... 98 

CHAP. X. Forming the Young Vine. 

Proper height of vines Forming the stem in the first region Forming 
the stem in the second and third regions ... ... ... ... 105 

^ CHAP. XI. Pruning. 

\ Position of fruit-bearing wood on the vine Long or short pruning Laws 

which govern the operation of pruning Short spur pruning Rod 
pruning Necessity of providing for wood as well as fruit Mixed 
system of pruning System giving great extension Other systems 
of pruning Time for pruning Pruning instruments ... * ... 110 

CHAP. XII. Summer Pruning. 

Disbudding Topping Gooseberry style^ Tying up Nipping off the 
terminal bud of a shoot Annular incision Stripping the leaves off ... 122 

CHAP. XIII. Cultivation. 

Necessity of keeping soil in a loose state Winter cultivation Summer 
cultivation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 130 

CHAP. XIV. Grafting. 

easons for grafting Ordinary cleft graft English cleft graft Time 
for grafting Value of different stocks ... ... .... ... 134 


A. Abstract of Evidence taken by the Royal Commission on Vegetable 

Products ... ... ... ... ... ... ,.. 140 

B. List of Members of Central Vine-growers' Association ... ... 145 

C. List of the Vine-growers of Victoria ... ... ., ... 149 

D. List of Applications from Vine-growers under the Bonus Regulations ... 170 

E. List of Vine-growers' Associations and Office-bearers .,. .... 179 
INDEX 180 




To His Excellency the RigTtt^norable JOHN ADRIAN 
Louis, Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie, and 
Baron Hope, in the Peerage of Scotland ; Byron 
Hopetoun of Hopetoun, and Baron Niddry of 
Niddry Castle, in the Peerage of the United 
Kingdom; Knight Grand Cross of the Most 
Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and 
Saint George ; Governor and Commander 'in- 
Chief in and over the Colony of Victoria and 
its Dependencies, 4*c., fyc., fyc. 


We have the honour to acquaint Your Excellency 
that, since the date of our last Report, we have confined 
our inquiries to the collection of practical evidence 
regarding the cultivation of Perfume Plants and Essential 
Oils, the cultivation of the Sugar Beet and the manu- 
facture of Sugar therefrom, and the various branches of 
Agricultural Education as taught in Great Britain and 


Europe, with a view to the development of Agricultural 
Education in this colony. The Minutes of Evidence on 
these several subjects ar submitted herewith. 

In our last Report to Your Excellency we stated that 
we were fully convinced of the value attached by the 
public to the Handbooks we have already issued, founded 
on the evidence given before us, on the subjects of Silos 
and Ensilage (No. 1), and (No. 2) on the cultivation of 
Perfume Plants and the production of Essential Oils and 
Medicinal Drugs. The published returns of the Govern- 
ment Statist show that in the first instance very great 
advantage to agriculture in Victoria has resulted from 
the dissemination of the information regarding Ensilage, 
and in the latter a flourishing Government Perfume 
Farm is now existing at Dunolly, where eight months 
ago there was nothing to be seen but the primitive bush. 
This official example is, to our knowledge, already bearing 
fruit, and we have every reason to believe that a new 
industry has been added to the colony. 

Accompanying the present Report, we beg to hand to 
Your Excellency a third Handbook, which is entirely 
devoted to the important industry of Vine-growing. 

This work has been prepared by Mr. Fra^ois 
de Castella, one of the experts attached by the 
Government to the Board of Viticulture, who from 
training and education is specially qualified to compile 
from the evidence given by the witnesses, and from 
his own experience in this colony, a Manual which 
shall be of practical service to the vine-growers of 


This Handbook will be followed by a second, dealing 
with Cellar work and the making of Wine, and subse- 
quently other publications on the cultivation of the Fig, 
the Olive, &c., will be issued by the Commission. 

We have the honour to be, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servants, 

WALTER MADDEN, Vice-President. (L.S.) 

FREDK. T. DERHAM, Member. (L.S.) 

JOHN L. DOW, (L.S.) 






T. K. DOW, (L.S.) 


D. MARTIN, (L.S.) 



Public Offices, Melbourne, 
5th May, 1891. 

NOTE. The Honorable J. F. Levien, President of the Commission, 
absent in Europe. The Honorable George Graham, Minister of Agri- 
culture, has not signed this report, owing to the fact that he is a 
member of the present Ministry, and as such among His Excellency's 


JOHN M. HIGHETT, ESQ., M.P., Chairman. 

EMILE BLAMPIED, ESQ., Great Western. 
THOS. BLAYNEY, ESQ., Nagambie. 
FREDK. BUSSE, ESQ., BarnawartJia. 
JOHN JOHNS, ESQ., Katandra. 


JOHN J. SHILLINGLAW, ESQ., Secretary, Public Offices, Melbourne,. 

0? THE 



ALTHOUGH the vine has been successfully cultivated in Victoria for 
many years, a fresh impetus seems to have been given to the wine- 
growing industry during the last few years, which fact is undoubtedly 
due to the inquiries of the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products 
and to the work of the Board of Viticulture. 

A considerable number of persons, more especially young men 
with small capital, are leaving the cities and turning their attention 
to the country districts ; many of our farmers, finding that the 
cultivation of cereals scarcely pays, are looking out for some product 
which will enable them to make more money out of their holdings. 
Amongst other cultures, that of the vine presents itself as being one 
of the most remunerative. 

Many excellent works have been written on Viticulture, but they 
are mostly in French or some other foreign tongue, the few English 
ones which exist being either out of print or only treating of the 
culture of vines under glass, as practised in England. 

The constant demand for some elementary work, in which 
beginners may learn something of practical Viticulture, has led to 
the elaboration of this little handbook, which it is hoped may be of 
service to those requiring information on the subject. 


The compilation of such a work is not so easy a task as might at 
first sight be supposed. The colony of Victoria embraces every 
description of climate, from Alpine to semi-tropical, or, in other 
words, every climate in which the vine can be profitably cultivated. 
To write a book which it is intended should teach people in 
different circumstances and who must therefore necessarily adopt 
different cultural methods is on this account, in order to avoid 
confusion, a task requiring great care. In the following pages every 
endeavour has been made to point out what influence the surrounding 
circumstances have on the vine, and in what way the different 
vineyard operations should be altered in consequence. This is the 
reason why the three first chapters constitute a sort of introduction, 
a thorough comprehension of which will render the remainder of the 
work far more intelligible. These first chapters consist chiefly of 
theoretical considerations, which may be but of small interest to many 
practical* farmers. As such, they have been made as independent 
as possible of the rest of the work, in order that practical men 
may, if they so choose, pass them over and proceed at once to 
the practical part, in which scientific terms and formulas have been 
avoided as much as possible, in order to render it readily intelligible 
to all. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge upon the advantages to be derived 
from the cultivation of the vine. They are evident to any one who 
considers the subject, and this work is intended rather to give 
information to those who have already decided to plant than to 
persuade those who have not. 

The cultivation of the vine differs essentially from that of most 
other plants. Wine does not, like many agricultural products, 
command a more or less fixed price, varying only with the condition 
of the market. It varies enormously in value. Without taking 
into consideration badly-made wine, which may be considered as 
worthless, we shall often find sound wines of the same age one of 


which will be worth four times as much as another. This 
difference in price depends chiefly upon the quality of the wine, 
and often on the relative rather than on the absolute quality or, 
in other words, its suitability for the market which it is intended 
to command. 

At the present moment the market for Victorian and we may say 
for Australian wine is very indefinite. Every one admits that the 
London market is the one upon which we chiefly rely, and which 
we must use our best endeavours to satisfy. The production of wine 
in Victoria is so insignificant that up to this time we have not been 
looked upon as a wine source by the large London merchants. This, 
however, is correcting itself. The amount of wine which we shall 
in a few years produce will be very considerable, and it is absurd to 
suppose that every grower will then be his own wine merchant, 
maturing and retailing his wine, as he often has to do at present. 
Instead of this unsatisfactory state of things, there will be purchasers 
as soon as the fermentation is properly terminated and the wine is in 
a fit state to travel. Competition will bring about differences in price 
in favour of the most suitable wines, and the grower will naturally 
find that these are the most advantageous for his business. At 
present any well-made wine of moderate alcoholic strength is of 
pretty much the same value, but it is scarcely reasonable to suppose 
that this state of things will continue. 

In each district there will be one class of wine which will surpass 
all others in point of excellence, and it is this type which the grower 
should endeavour to produce. Different districts will doubtless 
produce different wines, but all the vine-growers of one district should 
endeavour to make their wines of that type. Instead of interfering 
with each other by doing so, they will materially assist one another, 
as they will render it possible for merchants to obtain a sufficient 
quantity of the same wine to supply their customers with an article 
of unvarying character. 


This is not possible at present, on account of the great number 
of different wines made by each vineyard, and the hopeless confusion 
of names. 

Instead of having in each district a host of different names, such 
as Hermitage, Shiraz, Carbinet, Burgundy, Chasselas, Riesling, 
Tokay, &c., let each district produce a definite type of wine. 
Names derived from the sort of grape really mean nothing. Two 
Rieslings for instance, one grown on the Yarra and the other on 
the Murray differ as much as Hock and Sherry. 

Each district now has its Vine-growers' Association. Let all the 
vine-growers join it, and agree amongst themselves to produce one 
class of wine, or two at most say one white and one red and 
instead of the host of names mentioned above, the wine will then 
come to be known by the name of the district in which it is produced. 
We should have, for example, Rutherglen, Great Western, Bendigo, 
Mooroopna, and so forth. 

Such a change will inevitably come, and the sooner it comes the 
better for the wine industry. A man will then have some idea of the 
contents of a bottle from the label. 

In all old wine-growing countries this is the course which has 
been adopted. Fortunately for them, difficulty of communication 
and the experience of centuries, which showed them what sort of 
wine could be best produced in the district, brought this about. It 
is thus that such districts as Bordeaux, Burgundy, Chablis, Sauternes, 
Champagne, all produce distinct types of wine, and the names of 
these districts have become famous throughout the civilized world. 
At the Cape the depreciation of wine was so great that they had to 
adopt this system, which has so far been attended with most beneficial 

Very often the growers do not know what sort of wine it is best 
for their own interests to produce ; a few of them do not even know 
bad wine from good. By belonging to a Vinegrowers' Association, 


and meeting occasionally to discuss affairs in a friendly spirit, 
comparing their wines without jealousy, and obtaining the opinion of 
qualified judges upon the suitability or otherwise of such-and-such 
a description of wine, they will do more good to themselves, their 
neighbours, and the viticultural industry in general^ than can be easily 

The above remarks apply to the local as well as to the home 
market. It is very satisfactory to note that year by year the local 
consumption of our wine is increasing, and although at present far 
from being as considerable as one might wish, the prejudice of our 
population in favour of beer and spirit, to which they and their 
ancestors before them have been accustomed, must be taken into 

It is very gratifying to observe the way in which wine is gradually 
beginning to supersede other drinks with a great many Victorians. 
It is needless to remark that the effects of this change of opinion are 
as beneficial to the consumers as to the producers of the wine, for 
nobody now attempts to deny that sound natural wine is more whole- 
some than any other beverage man is in the habit of consuming. 

We are entitled to hope that from the amelioration in quality, and 
greater uniformity in character to which we are looking forward, the 
result will be a largely increased local consumption. 

In conclusion, my thanks are due to those authors whose works 
have furnished much of the matter contained in this Handbook. 
Although I have availed myself largely of the reports of the Vegetable 
Products Commission, there are several other works which I have 
extensively consulted whilst writing the following pages, and to their 
authors I now tender my grateful thanks. 

Among these I would specially mention Baron Sir F. von Mueller, 
Select Extra Tropical Plants; G. Foex (Director of the Agricultural 
College of Montpellier), Cours Complet de Viticulture; L. Fortes and 


F. Ruyssen, Traite de la Vigne et de ses Produits ; Dr. Jules Guyot, 
Culture de la Vigne et Vinification ; Etude des Vignobles de France ; 
G-eorge Husmann, Culture of the Vine in California; Francisque 
Chaverondier, La Vigne et le Vin ; and the works of Dr. A. C. Kelly 
upon Vine Culture in South Australia. 

Board of Viticulture, 
Melbourne, 12th May, 1891. 



THE culture of the vine has always accompanied the progress of 
civilization from the earliest ages up to the present time. Although 
generally said to have been introduced into Europe from Asia Minor 
modern research tends to prove that it was indigenous throughout 
Southern Europe. Of late years many fossil vines have been dis- 
covered, some of which so closely resemble the varieties of the present 
day that it is most probable that the vine has existed in Europe since 
the geological ages. 

Wine was made and drunk by the Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Romans in the very earliest times. The first mention of it in the 
Bible is in Genesis ix., 20, 21, 24, where we are told how Noah made 
wine, and drinking some of it, without knowing its strength, was over- 
powered by it. Even before this, however, it appears that wine was 
made in Egypt. At the tomb of Apophis a bas-relief was found 
representing a wine-press which dates from B.C. 3852, or 1,500 years 
before Noah. 

The antiquity of viticulture, although interesting, is of no 
practical importance to us, and it will suffice to say that as times 
became more peaceable, the growth of the vine spread over the 
greater part of the continent of Europe, even penetrating into the 
south of England, where, however, it is no longer cultivated for wine- 
making purposes, and at the present day this precious plant is 
cultivated in every civilized country where climatic conditions render 
it possible to do so with profit. 

The vine belongs to the family of the Ampelideae, genus Vitis, 
All the vines of European origin belong to one species, i.e., Vinifera; 



they, therefore, all come under the botanical name of Vitis Vinif era, of 
which the different sorts, or "cepages" as they are called in French, are 
only varieties. In a future chapter it is intended to describe a few 
species of Vitis other than the Vinifera, amongst which will be the 
various American vines, as they differ only in some minor respects 
from the Vitis Vinifera, which is by far the most important. In this 
chapter we shall confine ourselves to it as the type to which all vines 
may be compared. 

There is a considerable difference between the wild and the cultivated 
state of the vine in the former it is one of the most vigorous, fastest 
growing, and longest-lived of plants, capable of covering hundreds of 
square yards or climbing to the tops of the highest trees, but bearing 
little fruit. In the latter, on the other hand, instead of being a 
creeper as it is intended to be by nature, it is turned into a more or 
less stunted shrub, its vitality is much diminished, and its life is 
shortened to a great extent ; these apparent drawbacks being amply 
compensated by the great increase in the yield which is thus brought 

With the vine as with many other plants a diminution in the vigour 
of the plant is marked by an increase in the production of fruit. 
This is one of the wise provisions of nature for the perpetuation of 
the species. As long as the plant is in full vigour, it centres all 
its activity on itself, growing in a remarkable manner, but bearing 
little or no fruit. When, however, it begins to get weakened by 
any cause, natural or artificial, it seems to feel that its end is 
approaching, and turns all its activity to reproduction or the produc- 
tion of fruit. 

Many vignerons, knowing this, carry things to extremes and weaken 
the vine, through excessive pruning, to such an extent that its very 
existence is made difficult to it. Thus, by overdoing things, do they 
obtain wretched results, for which they blame the soil, the season, or 
any cause but the right one. The vine resents such barbarous 
treatment. Growers must adopt a more rational course, and not 
kill the goose which lays the golden eggs. This is contrary to the 
opinion held by many vignerons, but is nevertheless true. It is what 
Dr. Guyot, the eminent French authority on viticulture, tried to 
impress on the vine-growers of France during his whole life. We 
shall see more of this when we come to pruning. 


The vine is a deciduous flowering creeper or shrub with long slender 
sarmentaceous shoots. The different parts may be described as 
follows : 


The roots of the vine are of two sorts, tap-roots and laterals, which 
between them make up the complete root system of the plant, each 
having its special functions to perform. These two sorts of roots are 
very similar in structure, they are both long, slender, and branching, 
moderately succulent and similar to those of most fruit trees, and 
differ principally in their direction. The tap-roots of the vine are 
ramified, and not so distinct as in most other plants; they are more 
marked in seedlings than in vines grown from cuttings. 

When a young vine is grown from seed the root grows much faster 
than the stem it is at first entirely cellular, but it soon becomes 
covered with a thin epidermis (outer skin), which gets thinner towards 
the extremities; it is only the parts which are covered with this epi- 
dermis which are capable of absorbing food from the soil ; on them 
are found the minute absorbent hairs covered with a very thin mem- 
brane, through which the nourishing elements of the soil enter the 
Tine in a state of solution. Later on, this thin skin gives place to a 
regular bark ; woody fibres appear in the centre, and the root reaches 
its adult stage in which it can no longer absorb liquids directly, but 
serves to transmit those absorbed near the extremities to the other 
parts of the plant. 

The adult root is composed of a pithy centre, surrounded by bundles 
of fibres (fibro-vascular bundles), separated by medullary rays. Out- 
side is the bark, formed of vascular bundles, surrounded on the 
exterior by a layer of cork, which serves to protect the root from 
injuries. This cork layer varies in thickness, it predominates in the 
roots of some of the American species, rendering them able to resist 
the attacks of the phylloxera, to which the European varieties 
succumb. The roots of the American varieties are also tougher and more 
woody. Between the bark and the interior of the root is to be found 
the cambium layer, which generates the different tissues. 


The stem of the vine in its wild state is not divided as it is when 
cultivated into trunk, crown, and shoots, but is long, slender and 

B 2 

ramified, like the stems of most creepers, and is of pretty much the 
same diameter at different parts of the vine. This is due to the fact 
that the more rapid the development of the upper part of the vine 
the more slender will the stem be. This is often noticeable in 
trellises, and even vines in a vineyard where the main trunk has 
been formed too quickly. It is better to form it gradually, as a 
much stronger and better trunk, requiring less support than that of a 
too-rapidly formed vine, will be obtained. 

The shoots of the year are long and more or less slender. They 
are knotted at regular intervals. At each knot a leaf is to be found, 
the leaves growing alternately on either side of the shoot. Tendrils 
grow opposite to the leaves, which help the plant to fix itself to 
adjacent objects. In most vines every third leaf will be without a 
tendril opposite -to it, the other two having ojne. The tendrils are 
then discontinuous, one species of vine (Vitis Labrusca) has con- 
tinuous tendrils, a tendril (or bunch) being opposite to every leaf. 
At each knot there is a woody partition right through the shoot 
separating the pith above and below it, thus making a vine shoot in 
this respect comparable to that of a bamboo. 

At the base of each leaf there are several buds. The main one 
will only develop itself in the ensuing year ; but, in addition to this, 
there is one which may give rise to a lateral shoot during the current 
year, i.e., may grow during the same year as the main shoot, and 
there are two or more secondary buds which, like the principal one, 
are reserved for the ensuing year, but only develop themselves in 
case of injury to the main one. 

The laterals grow principally if the extremity of the main shoot be 
broken off, as we shall see when we come to the chapter on summer 

It is on the lateral shoots of the year that the second crop of grapes 
appears. It has been recommended to break off the extremities of 
the young shoot when they are about 4 inches long, it being said that 
the lateral shoots thus brought into existence will between them bear 
more fruit than the original shoot off which they grow. This has not 
been proved as yet, but still deserves mention, as it presents an 
opportunity for some interesting experiments. 

Unless the vine be short pruned a great many of the buds will not 
develop themselves, the ones at the greatest distance from the old wood, 

or situated near the end of the previous year's shoots, alone developing 
themselves ; this tendency of the vine to continually elongate itself 
must be carefully considered when vines are pruned long. 

The structure of the stem is very similar to that of the root. It 
also commences, like the root, by being purely cellular, but soon 
differentiates itself, becoming gradually more and more complicated. 
In the centre we have a cylinder of pith, very considerable in the 
young shoots, but which gradually diminishes as the shoot gets older. 
Outside this several concentric layers of fibre-vascular bundles are 
situated, the number varying with the age of the vine; they constitute 
the wood, which is extremely hard and dense in old vines, although 
soft when the shoots are young. Then comes the cambium, or 
generating layer, which forms the rings of new wood every year. 
The cambium layer is composed of mucilaginous cells, and is situated 
immediately between the young wood and the bark, which is itself 
composed of several layers, which it is unnecessary to enumerate 
here. The bark is thin and adherent ; it is drier and tougher than 
that of most other plants, and for this reason the vine is very hardy, 
and capable of resisting intense cold ; it will survive a winter during 
which the fig, for example, would perish. The outer layer of bark is 
gradually pushed off and replaced by new layers underneath it. The 
old ones do not fall off entirely, but remain more or less attached to 
the under parts, thus giving the old wood of the vine a characteristic 
but untidy appearance. This peculiar bark is a certain protection to 
the plant, but is at the same time a great drawback, as it forms a 
harbour for insects, spores of parasitic fungi, &c., &c. 


The leaves of the vine are large, and more or less dee*ply indented, 
being usually divided into five lobes, by as many sinus, as the indenta- 
tions are called. The margin is serrated or divided into teeth, which 
vary greatly in size and character ; they are large or small, blunt or 
sharp, regular or irregular ; sometimes there are two distinct series 
of them. 

The leaf is supported by a rather long stalk or petiole, which in 
structure resembles the young stem of the vine. There are five fibro- 
vascular bundles in it, each of which separates at the junction with the 
broad part of the leaf or limb to form one of the main veins, and 
occupy one of the lobes, the centre one, or mid-rib, being the 


largest. Each of these primary veins again gives rise to numerous 
secondary and tertiary veins distributed in such a way as to form a 
perfect network of fibre. The veins are raised on the under-surface 
of the leaf, but rather sunk- in if observed on the upper side. 

The two surfaces vary also in many other respects. The under- 
surface is usually downy, whilst the upper is seldom so. The under 
side is always of a paler colour than the upper. 

In structure the leaves of the vine consist of an epidermis or outer 
skin, which covers both sides of the leaf, and encloses the paren- 
chyma or cellular tissue, the cells of which contain the chlorophyl 
or green colouring matter. 

On the under side of the leaf are to be found the stomata or breath- 
ing pores, to the number of 13,600 per square inch. These may be 
termed the lungs of the plant, as it is through them that the air is 
brought in contact with the inner tissues, which are thus enabled to 
absorb necessary gases from the air, and to get rid of those 
eliminated during the process of nutrition, as well as a large amount 
of water. On the upper surface there are no stomata. 

On the epidermis are hairs, which are either stiff or long and silky, 
the former on the under side of most vine leaves, especially on the 
veins, whilst the latter constitute the cottony down occasionally 
present on the under or on both sides of the leaf. 


The flowers of the vine are grouped in bunches, which are too 
familiar to require description. The bunch is botanically termed a 
raceme, and is an example of indefinite inflorescence. The flower 
itself is small and insignificant looking, and of a pale green colour. 
It may be described as follows : 

Calyx small, almost entire, formed of five sepals united at their 
base. Corolla, usually composed of five petals, alternate with the 
sepals and cohering above; when the bud opens they are set free at 
the base, but remain united at the summit, so that the whole corolla 
falls off in a single piece. Stamens, usually five in number, opposite 
to the petals, the anthers being ovate and versatile. Alternate with 
the stamens are five nectariferous glands, which give rise to the 
fragrant perfume of the flower. Pistil style short. It is divided 
into two cells, each with two ovules. This is the complete or 

hermaphrodite flower of the vine (Figs. 1 and 2) containing both 
stamens and pistil. In the wild state all the flowers are not complete, 

FIG. 1. FIG. 2. 

some plants bear complete flowers, whilst others bear flowers which 
are only male, the pistil not being formed (Fig. 3). Other plants 

FIG. 3. 

again bear both male and complete flowers. Amongst cultivated 
vines only the plants with hermaphrodite flowers are to be found ; the 
others, which are always sterile, not having been reproduced by 
cuttings. Among seedling vines, however, they are of frequent 
occurrence, and if found in a vineyard, the vines bearing them should 
be destroyed or grafted with kinds bearing only complete or her- 
maphrodite flowers. 

In addition to these, some badly-formed flowers may be found either 
with the petals opening at the top and remaining attached to the flower 

FIG. 4. 

in the shape of a star, instead of detaching at their base and falling 

off in a single cap as they ought to do (Fig. 4). Some again may 
have the stamens and pistils turned into leaves, either partially 
(Fig. 5) or totally, as in the^flower of a double geranium. The first 

FIG. 5. 

are capable of being fecundated by pollen from another flower and 
giving fruit; they are unable to give rise to fruit otherwise, as the 
stamens are short and weak, and the pollen often sterile. The 
second are and must always be sterile. 

Tendrils may be looked upon as bunches which have aborted or 
which bear no fruit. They occur in the same position as the bunches, 
i.e., opposite to the leaves, the complete bunches being opposed to lower 
leaves, whilst the tendrils are situated more towards the extremities 
of the shoots they serve to attach the vine to the different objects 
upon which it climbs. The fruit resulting from the fecundation of 
the above-described flower is a round or slightly oblong succulent 
berry, which, when ripe, consists of a rather thin skin enclosing a 
very fluid pulp containing various substances, the most important 
being glucose or grape sugar and some vegetable acids. In the centre 
are situated the seeds, varying in number from one to four ; in some 
varieties they are totally absent. The tannin and colouring matter 
are contained in the skin. The percentage of glucose in the juice, 
and consequently the strength of the wine, depends upon the amount 
of fruit on the vine. Vines bearing a light crop will give a stronger 
wine than those heavily laden with fruit ; by regulating the number 
of bunches on the vines, it is possible to increase or diminish the 
strength of the wine. 



Having described the different parts of the vine, let us see in what 
manner and to what extent each of them contributes to the develop- 
ment of the plant and production of fruit. 

The vine being a deciduous plant, the cycle of its yearly develop- 
ment only extends from the time when the buds burst in the spring 
till the leaves fall off in the autumn, which, in a temperate climate, 
embraces a period of something under six -months; the other six 
months of the year are passed in a dormant state. 

In this annual cycle of activity it seems to have for primary object 
the production and proper maturation of its fruit; all the functions 
of the different organs tending towards this end, as if they had been 
brought into existence solely for this purpose. 

The activity culminates in the ripening of the fruit; after this 
has taken place, the leaves turn red or yellow, fall off, and the plant 
hastens to assume its wintry appearance. Not only is this the case 
in the cultivated vine, where it might be expected since every device of 
art and an artificial selection during many centuries have been at work 
striving to increase the yield, but even in the wild state is this so, 
although to a lesser degree. 

In the spring the activity of the vine begins to manifest itself by a 
rise in the sap; this is followed by the emission of shoots bearing 
leaves and flower buds, which grow with great rapidity for the first 
few months. 

The rise of the sap is due to the increase in the surrounding tem- 
perature; this acts by dilating the bubbles of air which exist in the 
liquid column contained in the vessels of the stem; by stimulating the 
leaf buds it causes the emission of organs which provide for a con- 
tinuation of the rise. The vessels of the vine are large, and the sap 
flows very freely through them. When a shoot is cut in the spring 
it bleeds copiously. Hales measured this ascensional force of the 


sap, and found that it was equal to a pressure of about 10 Ibs. per 
square inch. When the plant is in full activity, the rise of sap is 
still greater, as there are more factors to promote it. 

The leaves exert a very considerable influence. The leaves of all 
plants transpire or exhale through their stomata or breathing pores 
large quantities of water. Those of the vine are no exception to this 
rule. Hales found that a vine with a leaf surface of 1 ,820 square inches, 
or 120 medium-sized leaves, exhaled from 5 oz. to 6 oz. of water daily 
under ordinary circumstances. This amount, however, is not con- 
stant it varies with the amount of light the plant is exposed to and 
the moisture of the air. Plants do not transpire in the dark nor in a 
very faint light. This function is more acted upon by light than 
heat. It makes room for the fresh sap which is being continually sent 
up by the roots. This sap becomes concentrated by the loss of 
water, and by osmosis favours the rise of a fresh quantity. Osmosis 
is the name given to a physical phenomenon which takes place when 
two liquids of different density are separated by a thin membrane ; 
both liquids traverse the membrane, but the less dense does so to a 
far greater extent than the denser one. This process of osmosis 
takes place throughout the whole of the plant through the cell 
membranes from the root where the liquids enter the absorbent hairs, 
in the form of a thin watery solution, to the highest parts of the 
plant. It is the principal cause of the rise of the sap, which is also 
promoted by capillary attraction in the long vessels of the plant. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge upon the cause of this rise of the sap ; 
it is sufficient for us to know that it does rise, and not only does it 
rise but it circulates. 

After entering the roots through the microscopic absorbent hairs 
in the form of a thin watery solution, it rises through the vessels of 
the young wood and finally reaches the leaves, to all the tissues of 
which it is distributed by the veins. In the leaves it is not only 
concentrated by loss of water, as we have already seen, but it 
becomes enriched with many new substances derived from its contact 
with the atmosphere. 

Under the influence of the light of day the chlorophyl or green 
colouring matter is capable of decomposing the carbonic acid of 
the air and taking the carbon with which it forms immediate 
products, which will in turn undergo transformations in order 
to form the different tissues, &c., of the plants, the oxygen being set 


free. One of the most important of these immediate products is 
starch, but there are many others such as oils, acids, &c. The leaves 
therefore, perform the double functions of transpiration and assimila- 
tion in addition to these, a true respiration similar to that of animals 
takes place in them, the plant absorbing oxygen and exhaling carbonic 
acid, and effecting transformations in some of the substances assimi- 
lated during the day. This respiration is noticeable at night, but 
is not so considerable as the absorption of carbonic acid during the 

Having undergone these different processes in the leaf, the sap 
descends through the vessels of the bark, and is distributed to the 
different parts of the plant as required, a part of it finding its way to 
the roots, where it provides for the elongation of these organs; and at 
the same time a small quantity which escapes, helps to dissolve 
certain mineral substances of the soil which are not soluble in water, 
such as carbonate of lime and phosphates, and thus allows them to 
enter the vine. 

It is evident from all this, that carbon, which is the most abundant 
solid element in all plants, and which remains in the form of charcoal 
when almost any vegetable substance is strongly heated without a 
sufficient supply of air to burn it, is derived solely from the atmosphere, 
and assimilated by the leaves, none of it being absorbed through the 
roots. The only substances absorbed by the roots are water, ash, and 
compounds containing nitrogen (ammonia and nitrates). These do not 
form a large percentage, and if we except water, which is of course 
necessary to dissolve the other substances, we shall find that not 8 per 
cent, of the total weight of the plant comes from the soil, the remaining 
92 per cent, being absorbed from the air. Strange as this may seem 
it is not less true, no scientific fact being more clearly proved. 
The different organs perform their functions in this manner through- 
out the summer, the roots requiring moisture without the help of 
which they would be unable to absorb the necessary mineral sub- 
stances of the soil, or to replace the water lost by the plant through 
transpiration. The leaves on their side require heat, light, and air. 
Although it is necessary that moisture should be present in the soil, 
it must not be so in too great a proportion as the vine requires air at 
its roots as well. If the soil be swampy or sour, the vigour of the 
plant will be greatly impaired, and it will fall an easy prey to any 
disease to which it may be subject. 


About the month of November, in Victoria, the all-important 
function of flowering takes place ; the vine has then increased con- 
siderably in size both above and below ground. The flower bud 
gradually swells till the moment of bursting, when the corolla is 
forced off in a single piece or capsule, and the different parts of the 
flower are set at liberty. The pollen of the anthers is deposited on 
the pistil, and finds its way to the ovules, which, being fecundated, 
will ultimately become the seeds ; the ovary in which they are 
contained swelling up to form the fruit. The exact moment when 
this fecundation takes place is not clearly known. Some authors 
consider that it is just before the capsule is thrown off, and while 
the anthers are in contact with the pistil, whilst the majority admit 
that it takes place immediately after the fall of the capsule. It is quite 
possible that under different circumstances both views may be correct. 

If the ovules are not fecundated, the flower withers and falls off, 
giving rise to no fruit, or in plain words the fruit does not set. 

The seedless Sultana grape seems at first sight to be an exception 
to this rule ; but the experiment of Mr. Knight, of Sandhurst, in his 
evidence before the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products, proves 
that this is not so the ovules are perfectly fecundated, but the seeds 
are subsequently absorbed into the pulp of the fruit. The non- setting 
of the grapes, or " coulure " as it is termed in French, is due to several 
causes. The washing off of the pollen by rain at the time when 
fecundation should take place is one of them, but in far the greater 
number of cases it is due to a malformation of the flower. 

We have already seen several cases in which it is, so to speak, in- 
herited from parent vines, in which case the faulty vines should 
be destroyed ; but it often happens that it is not the fault of the plant 
but of the season. Under the influence of prolonged wet weather, even 
a considerable time before the blossoming, there may be an ; excessive 
amount of sap in the plant, rendering it weak and flabby, although 
in appearance perfectly normal. The stamens then become short 
and watery, and are incapable of fecundating the pistil, which itself 
may be sterile. This is amply proved to be the case by the fact that 
anything which tends to diminish the quantity of sap in the vine also 
diminishes the non-setting of such varieties as may be subject to this 
defect. The excessive moisture may also promote this by facilitating 
the growth of fungus parasites on the delicate reproductive organs, 
with fatal results to the crop of fruit. 


In addition to this non-setting or complete abortion in certain years, 
it may be observed that although at first the fruit appears to have 
set properly, after a short time differences 
will be noticeable between different berries 
of the bunch, all of which do not take an 
even development, so that at vintage time 
the bunches are loose and made up of uneven- 
sized berries, some of which, containing no 
seeds (which have been re-absorbed), are 
scarcely larger than shot, and do not ripen 
properly, while at the same time there are 
some normal ones (Fig. 6). 

In French this is termed " miller andage.'"' 
It may result from several causes. Some- 
times it will be observed on diseased vines, 
in which case it would appear to be due to 
faulty nutrition of the plant ; but it occurs 
far more often in Australia, especially when 
cold wet weather prevails immediately after FIG. 6. 

the setting of the flower, the young fruit receiving a check to their 
development, from which they are not able to completely recover. 
According to M. L. de Malafosse, these small berries are due to the 
development of some late flowers present in most bunches, which 
usually abort, but are enabled to develop on account of the non-setting 
of some of the principal flowers ; they are not, however, capable of 
giving normal-sized fruit. Whatever be the manner in which this 
" millerandage " be brought about, it may be said to result in the great 
majority of cases from the prevalence of unfavorable weather imme- 
diately after the blossoming. Once fecundated, the fruit develops 
itself steadily during the whole of the summer, the rest of the plant 
also increases in size to some extent, although it does not grow 
rapidly after the blossoming. The leaves increase in size and number, 
and in them the various substances found in the mature fruit are 
elaborated. They are thus of the greatest importance; the fruit 
cannot be formed without them. In the words of Macagno, another 
eminent French authority, " the leaves are the laboratory of pro- 
duction of glucose, the green branches the conductors of this precious 
constitutive element of the must." 


We, therefore, see that the leaves do not simply act beneficially by 
sheltering the grapes from the direct rays of the sun, but are indis- 
pensable for the elaboration of the necessary constituents of the mature 
fruit. The unripe berries contain several free acids, amongst the 
number tartaric, citric, and malic are the most important. By the 
action of these acids on such substances as starch, gum, dextrine, 
lignine, cellulose, &c., grape-sugar or glucose is formed. The fruit 
during this time becomes richer in sugar and poorer in acid ; part of 
the acid is also neutralized by mineral salts absorbed by the roots, 
and at the same time the juice becomes denser through loss of water 
by evaporation. The different processes which take place in the 
plant, of which the ultimate result is the production of glucose, are 
exceedingly complex and cannot be gone into here ; the above out- 
line sketch will suffice to give an idea of the character of the 

A short time before the maturation takes place -the time being 
marked for red grapes by their commencing to change colour a 
characteristic change seems to come over the vine; it looks sick. 
This is caused by the sap partly leaving the leaves and transporting 
itself to the berries. During this time the plant looks more unhealthy 
than at any other period of its yearly development. This is termed in 
French the " veraison" and continues, although in a less marked 
manner, until the time when the fruit is ready to be picked. 

Once the maturity is complete, whether the grapes be picked or not, 
the duty of the year being accomplished, the vine hastens to assume 
its winter appearance. The nutritive materials which have not been 
required for the fruit are concentrated in or about the buds as a store 
for next year, to enable the plant to start its growth again. 

The leaves turn red or yellow and fall off ; the ascensional power 
of the sap becomes less and less and finally ceases, and the vine 
assumes its winter or dormant state and is to all intents and purposes 
dead. It continues in this state until the rise of temperature in the 
spring determines a rise of sap and commencement of vegetation, when 
the same cycle is gone through once more. 




Any one who studies the numerous works on viticulture, or strives 
to obtain information on the subject from practical men coming from 
different parts of Europe, will be struck by the great confusion which 
exists, and the startling way in which the systems recommended by 
each differ from one another, even on what would appear to be the 
fundamental principles, or such operations as planting, pruning, 

It may be imagined that this is so, because each district in the old 
country has its particular method, handed down from generation to 
generation, and the prejudice common to uneducated country people 
makes them unwilling to change it ; but the application of more 
scientific methods would change all this, and bring about a reform, 
having for result the adoption of one standard system. This, how- 
ever, is not the case. It is not alone by scientific research that our 
modern knowledge of viticulture has been obtained. Our ancestors 
were not scientific men, yet no one can deny that they brought it 
to a high state of perfection. Their guide was practical experience, 
extending over many centuries ; it taught them slowly but surely, 
with comparatively few exceptions, the best method to adopt ; this 
is amply proved by the fact that since the results of modern research 
have been applied to practical viticulture, few alterations have been 
made in the methods used. 

We are thus led to admit that nearly every district in the wine- 
producing countries of Europe has a distinct viticultural method of its 
own, and at the same time that all these methods are correct, pro- 
vided they are adopted in the locality where experience has proved 
their suitability. In Europe things are thus greatly simplified ; in nine 
cases out of ten a man may, with perfect safety, copy the method 
adopted by the majority of his neighbours. In Australia we are very 
differently situated; we have no experience of past generations to guide 


us, but are confronted at the start by a host of conflicting opinions 
held by vignerons coming from different countries and climates. The 
simplest and quickest way out of the difficulty is to try to discover, 
by more scientific means than our ancestors had at their disposal, what 
are the rules we are to be guided by, and how they may be varied by 
circumstances. It is impossible to lay down hard-and-fast rules for 
viticulture to say, as many people do, that any particular soil, 
distance apart, kind of vine, &c., is the best for wine making. 
We shall see that the same method of culture in two different localities 
will give different results, different modes of culture in the same locality 
will also give different results, and lastly, that in certain cases different 
modes of culture in different localities may give the same result. 

The surrounding circumstances have more influence on the vine 
than on most plants usually cultivated. Their effect is plainly 
visible in the outward appearance of the plant, but manifests itself to 
a far greater extent in the wine which is, on this account, a most vari- 
able product. 

These surrounding circumstances are made up of several factors ; 
it is of the greatest importance that the vigneron should know what 
they are, in what manner they act, and in what way it is possible to 
modify their effect by adopting a different system of culture, with 
the object of obtaining a wine well suited to the requirements of 
commerce, and at the same time of as high a degree of perfection as 
possible; as between making a pretty good wine and a very good wine 
lies all the difference between paying working expenses and making 
handsome profits. 

In this chapter we shall examine what these different factors are 
and in what way they act; in the following ones we shall see in what 
way it is possible to modify their effect. These factors are climate, 
soil, and variety. 


Although the three factors enumerated above are all of great 
importance, the climate is, without doubt, the most important one. 
Its influence in rendering a certain mode of culture more suitable 
than another is very considerable in fact, it is of such importance as 
to be capable of rendering the profitable cultivation of the vine 
impossible. There is, in other words, a climatic zone, outside of 
which vine-growing will not pay. Fortunately, this zone is very 


extensive, and we may say that it embraces all climates which are 
neither tropical nor very cold. Very few parts of this colony of 
Victoria are unsuitable for the cultivation of the vine as far as this 
factor is concerned. 

The three elements, heat, light, and moisture, in varying pro- 
portions, make up the climate. Two vines so situated as to receive 
more or less of either of them may be said to be in different climates, 
as would also be the case if they received the maxima or minima of 
either of them at different times. 

Heat and light may be considered together, as they both being 
derived from a common source viz., the sun on a clear day the 
plant receives more, and on a cloudy day less of each. 

The immediate effect of an increase in the amount of heat and 
light a vine receives, or, in other words, of transporting it from a 
colder into a warmer climate, is an increase in the vigour of the 
plant; but its most important effect is to augment the percentage of 
glucose contained in the must, and, consequently, the strength of the 
resulting wine. 

It is for this reason that the wines of northern France are lighter 
than those of the south, which are in turn lighter than those of 
Spain ; or, in taking Victoria, that the wines of the northern districts 
are stronger than those of the southern ones. 

That the effect of the climate should be very considerable is 
evident when we consider that not only does the plant receive more 
intense heat and light during the same time, but it receives it during 
a longer time the yearly cycle of active growth, increasing in 
length in the warm climate, since the vines begin to bud much 
sooner in the spring, although the time of complete maturity of the 
fruit is not sensibly hastened. 

We saw in Chapter IT. that during the ripening of the fruit the 
percentage of acid diminishes as that of glucose increases. Part of 
this acid is employed in the elaboration of the glucose, and part is 
neutralized by mineral salts derived from the soil just before complete 
maturity ; in a cold climate the acids are not completely neutralized, 
and the grapes (and wine) often have a sour crude taste. 

To sum up the effect of climate in a few words, we may say the 
colder it is the more acid, the warmer it is the more alcohol the 
resulting wine will contain. 



The cold climate errs by the resulting wine being too rich in acid, 
and the warm by it being too rich in alcohol. A perfect wine can 
therefore be more easily produced in a temperate climate. 

The influence of moisture is to some extent contrary to what we have 
just seen, inasmuch as in a moist climate the percentage of acid and 
glucose in the must are both diminished. In some cases this is an 
advantage, but in excess is very injurious, the vine being subject to 
various fungus diseases (especially if the air be damp), and the wine 
becoming a watery compound without flavour, bouquet, or keeping 
qualities. Although it is impossible to alter the climate in the matter 
of light and heat, we can modify it, as far as moisture is concerned, by 
having recourse to irrigation, which thus becomes of the greatest 
importance to vine-growers in very dry countries, where the rainfall is 
so scanty as to render viticulture unprofitable without its aid. 

Irrigation, as applied to vineyards, has given rise to much discus- 
sion, most persons, especially in this country, holding different opinions 
as to the results to be expected from it. In the evidence taken by 
the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products, whilst most witnesses 
agree that it largely increases the yield, they express very different 
opinions as to whether its adoption is advisable or not. Some recom- 
mend it, others denounce it in emphatic terms, saying that it facilitates 
the development of fungus diseases of the vine and ruins the character 
of the wine.* There is much to be said on both sides; moderation 
must be observed in this as in most other things. The use of too 
much water is no doubt injurious, especially in land where the drainage 
is imperfect, as a vine is most unfavorably placed if growing in swampy 
or very damp soil. In the cooler parts of the colony vineyards should 
be very sparingly, if ever irrigated; in fact, in most cases, it is 
better to dispense with it altogether. It will, however, be readily 
understood by unprejudiced persons that this is not so in the dry 
northern districts. In the case of a deficient rainfall the application 
of a few inches of water in an artificial manner can only be attended 
with beneficial results if the water be applied judiciously and at a 
proper time. An excessive amount of sap in the plant at flowering 
time, or a chill immediately after the setting of the fruit, being usually 
attended with disastrous results (page 12), care should be taken not 
to apply water until this dangerous period has safely passed and the 
berries are of the size of small shot. 

* In the Appendix will be found an abstract of these opinions. 



The application of water too late in the season (just before vintage) 
is also injurious, and, according to some, liable to promote the gro \vtli 
of a second crop of grapes. 

On the whole, we may say that irrigation of vineyards is in many 
cases beneficial, and sometimes even necessary ; it enables the culti- 
vation of the vine to be carried out in localities where it would be 
impossible under the prevailing climatic conditions, it largely increases 
the yield, and at the same time enables a lighter wine to be produced in 
the warmer parts of the colony. In the central parts it may often prove 
beneficial, although by no means necessary, whilst in the cooler southern 
parts it cannot be recommended except under exceptional circumstances. 

The water of rivers contains far more fertilizing matter than rain 
water, it therefore follows that irrigation acts beneficially in, to some 
extent, enriching the land, and by thus delaying its ultimate exhaustion, 
postponing the time when manuring must be resorted to, or at least by 
compensating for the increase in production it brings about. 

The opponents of irrigation urge that it is not used in France. 
This, however, is not the case. Foex, the director of the Agricultural 
College of Montpellier (France), mentions several parts of the south 
of France where vineyards have been irrigated for many years, 
and recommends the extension of this practice, especially for the pro- 
duction of cheaper wines. Pulliat also mentions how the vineyards 
of the Canton du Valais, in Switzerland, are irrigated, the climate, 
although cold in winter, being dry in summer. 

Much harm has been done to the cause of irrigated vineyards by 
inexperienced persons who have water placed at their disposal. 
Thinking that its fertilizing powers are unlimited, and that the more 
the vines get the better will the result be, they over-do it, and swamp 
them to such an extent as to either prevent the setting of the grapes 
or promote the growth of fungus diseases, which destroy the crop; 
they soon find their error, then rush to the other extreme, denounce 
irrigation, and resolve never to have recourse to it again. Although 
the water may not have been applied in sufficient quantity to do this, 
yet it may have done considerable injury by unduly decreasing the 
percentage of natural acid in the fruit, and thus rendering the wine 
less liable to keep well as well as making it more dangerous during 
fermentation. Although too much natural acid (which would be present 
were unripe grapes employed) is objectionable, too little is almost as bad. 

c 2 


The failure of irrigated vineyards is frequently caused by neglect 
of cultivation. Irrigation, to be successful, must be supplemented by 
thorough and frequent cultivation, for which it is by no means a sub- 
stitute, as many people seem to think. 

A vineyard owes its particular climate to several causes, of which 
the most important are latitude, altitude, and aspect ; it is also greatly 
influenced by the distance from the coast, proximity to mountain 
ranges, direction of prevailing winds, &c. 

It is unnecessary to discuss the influence of altitude and latitude 
h ere every one knows that the further one goes from the equator, 
or the higher one rises above sea-level, the colder it will be. 

The aspect or exposition o a vineyard, however, although of vary- 
ing and, as a rule, lesser importance, deserves mention, as one con- 
tinually hears such very different opinions as to its importance. In 
reality this varies with the coldness of the climate ; in a warm one 
it is not considerable, the amount of light and heat being so great 
that a little more or less does not make much difference. 

On almost level land the influence of aspect is insignificant. On 
hilly land it may be very considerable, the side of a hill facing the north 
evidently being far hotter than that facing the south. In some parts 
of Europe the eastern aspect is considered far superior to any other 
for the reason we have already given, that light has more influence 
on many vegetable functions than heat the eastern side of a hill being 
exposed to the morning light, always more intense than th'at of the 

Is this aspect always an advantage ? In a cold climate it is cer- 
tainly so, but in a warm climate it is often preferable to choose a site 
with a cooler aspect, S.S.E. or even S.W. One often hears it said that 
the vine must be grown on hills and not on flat land. In a cold district 
this is true, because the hillsides with favorable aspect and shelter 
will be warmer, the drainage better, and the soil also poorer some- 
times an advantage in a cool climate as we shall see later on. 

In a temperate climate the aspect is of small importance, and 
flat land is often as suitable as hilly, whilst in a warm district the 
best aspect will often be the southern or south-western slope, or 
the one which would be worst in a cool district. 

The distance from the sea renders the climate more extreme, 
that is, hotter in summer and colder in winter. Localities situated 


far inland are, as a rule, more liable to suffer from spring frosts, 
although producing a stronger wine than places near the coast, 
where the variations in temperature are not so great. 

The proximity to high mountain ranges renders the climate cooler 
and moister than it would otherwise be. The effect of prevailing 
winds varies according as to whether they have passed over the 
sea or over a heated continent, or, in other words, whether they 
are dry or moist. 

From all this it will be seen that it is impossible to lay down 
any simple rules which would enable a man to say, for example, 
" the climate of my vineyard is identical with that of Bordeaux." Only 
complete meteorological observations can enable such a thing to be 
said with any approach to certainty. 

For the purposes of this work, it will be very convenient for us 
to roughly divide the colony into three climatic regions or divisions 
as far as viticulture is concerned. These regions would be as 
follows : 

First, or cool region. This would embrace the greater part of 
the colony situated on the coast side of the Dividing Range, and 
would be very similar to the best wine-growing districts of France, 
such as Bordeaux, Burgundy, Champagne, &c., and from similarity 
of climate would be solely but eminently suited for the production 
of light wines of similar character to those made in the above 

Second, or intermediate region, comprising the greater part of the 
central districts of Victoria, the climate of which is similar to that 
of the south of France or north of Italy. Sandhurst, Great Western, 
and similar wine-producing districts would come within this region, 
which would be admirably suited for the production of good com- 
mercial wines, and capable of producing either strong or light wines, 
according to the sorts grown and methods of cultivation. 

Third, or warm region', where the climate is similar to that of Spain, 
Portugal, or Sicily, and therefore best suited for the production of 
strong wines, although by careful culture and selection of soil and 
varieties moderately light wines may be produced. Rutherglen, 
Mildura, and most places situated in the northern and north-western 
parts of the colony would be comprised in this region which is the 
one where the best results would be obtained from the employment of 



The nature of the soil has a most important influence on the 
growth of the vine and on the quality and quantity of wine which it 
will produce. Two vineyards, differing from each other only in the 
soil, may give very different results both as regards the crop per acre 
and the value of the wine. 

The vine is one of the hardiest of plants, and will grow in any 
soil that is not swampy, too highly mineralized, or otherwise unfit for 
vegetation. There is scarcely any variety of soil fulfilling these 
requirements in which profitable vineyards have not, at one time or 
another, been established ; but, as might reasonably be expected, 
certain classes are more or less suitable than others, more especially, 
as we shall see, in a certain climate or for a certain variety of vine. 

The characters of a soil are physical and chemical. The physical 
characters are looseness or stiffness, depth, and colour. 

The looseness or friability of a soil is of great importance. The 
advantages of a friable soil over a compact one are manifest the 
drainage is better, the absorption of water greatly facilitated, and, as 
it can be cultivated with far greater ease, it enables one to check the 
evaporation of moisture during the dry season, as nothing favours the 
retention of moisture so much as keeping the surface in a thoroughly 
loose state. The difference between a stiff clay soil, which dries up 
and cracks in summer, and a sandy or otherwise friable soil, which 
remains loose and is always moist a few inches below the surface, is 
too well known to need enlarging upon. A loose soil is therefore an 
advantage in a very wet as well as in a very dry district. 

The depth of the soil is of variable importance, and depends chiefly 
upon the climate. Although a deep soil is usually considered to be 
the best for vine-growing purposes, if we examine the different 
districts in the old country we find that this is far more the case in 
the southern than in the northern parts. In a warm climate the vine, 
taking a greater development, requires more room for its roots, which, 
extending vertically as well as laterally, demand a deeper soil. 
Under such conditions there is also less danger of a scarcity of 
moisture during the summer. In a cold district the moisture of the 
soil is always ample, and the vine, growing with less vigour, can 


satisfy itself with a much shallower soil, in which it is also better 
able to mature its fruit, an operation which is not always satisfactorily 
performed in northern France, where it is not uncommon to see vine- 
yards growing where there is only a thin layer of soil covering an 
impenetrable rocky subsoil. Such vineyards are in many cases 
celebrated for the excellence of f their product (but, again we say it, 
only in a cold district). 

The colour of a soil is of more importance than might be imagined. 
Every one knows the difference between the temperature of a house, 
the outside of which is painted black or painted white. With the 
soil the influence is more marked, as it acts both upon the roots and 
the part above- ground. A dark-coloured soil absorbs heat, and its 
own temperature rises, but it reflects very little on to the upper part 
of the vine, whilst a white or light-coloured soil has the reverse effect; 
it reflects the rays on to the fruit and leaves, whilst its own tempera- 
ture increases but slightly. It follows that a dark soil is an advan- 
tage in a cold climate where the moisture of the soil is excessive, 
while in a warm climate a light- coloured soil is preferable, as it 
insures to a greater extent the retention of moisture. The disease 
known as Chlorosis, which is characterized by the leaves of the vine 
turning yellow and the whole plant losing its vigour, and which often 
results from too much moisture in the soil, is less prevalent in dark 
than in light coloured soils, in which many vines, more especially 
among those of American origin, suffer very considerably from it. 

Soils containing pebbles or gravel are always, and in all countries, 
highly esteemed for viticultural purposes. This is borne out by the 
fact that almost all the most celebrated vineyards are planted in soils 
containing a more or less considerable proportion of pebbles of various 
kinds. In the best Burgundy vineyards they are calcareous, at 
Bordeaux quartz, on the Rhine granitic, and in Champagne chalky. 
In some of the most celebrated vineyards the soil is so stony that it 
would be unfit for any other culture than that of the vine. At 
Chateau Lafitte the proportion of water- worn quartz pebbles in the 
soil is 71 per cent. 

The chemical properties of the soil are of great importance, and in 
order that they should be understood, it will be necessary to revert 
to what we saw with reference to the composition of the vine. The 
following table gives a fair idea of the importance of the different 


elements of which the plant is composed, as well as the sources from 
which they are derived : 

Carbon ... ... \ Amounting to about 90 per cent., and 

Hydrogen ... ... / derived by the vine from the air and 

Oxygen ... ... / rain. 


Amounting to about 4 per cent. 

These elements are always far 
Chlorine ... ... ) , i ,1 . -, -, ^ 

more abundantly provided in the 

soil than is necessary to the plant. 

Nitrogen ... ... -. Amounting to something over 4 per 

Phosphorus ... ... cent. Derived like the last from 

Potassium ... ... [ the soil in which they are only 

Calcium (lime) ... J present to a limited extent. 

Of these fourteen elements, combined together in varying numbers 
and proportion, the almost infinite number of substances found in the 
vine and wine are made up. We see from the above table that the 
last four, viz. : Potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and calcium (or 
lime) are the only ones we need consider, as all others are either 
derived from the air and rain or are so abundantly present in all soils 
as to be practically inexhaustible. The presence of more or less of 
these four important elements renders a soil valuable or worthless, 
and the predomination of any one of them will render such a soil 
especially suitable for one class of plants. A soil rich in nitrogen is 
most suitable for wheat, colza, tobacco, &c. ; one rich in phosphorus is 
better suited for turnips, maize, sugar cane, &c.; whilst for vines 
potash is the most important element, at least as far as the 
production of fruit is concerned the presence of phosphorus and 
nitrogen has more influence on the production of wood. Now, although 
vines are cultivated with the object of obtaining fruit, there must 
be wood for the fruit to grow upon. We must have sufficient of all 
the necessary elements, but as potash is the one of which the greatest 
portion is taken away by the fruit, it is the one which should be 
present in considerable proportion in all soils intended for vines. 

In many cases poor soils give wines of superior quality, especially 
in a cold climate where a heavy crop would give too weak a wine. 


The number of varieties of soil are very great, and it would be 
out of place to here give complicated analyses, yet it will be of use 
to those who intend planting, to briefly review what are the chief 
types of soil, what are the principal constituents of each, and in what 
way it acts upon the vine. 

All soils more or less resemble one of the following types : 
Clayey, sandy, calcareous, plutonic, and peaty soils. 

Clay soils give excellent wines, as a rule, in temperate climates, 
especially if they are not too compact, their principal drawback being 
their liability to crack and dry up. Wines made in clay soils usually 
possess all the requisite characteristics of a good wine in moderation 
and are very pleasant. Their chief constituent, pure clay or silicate 
of alumina, is not necessary to the vine, so its influence must be 
more mechanical than otherwise. 

Schistose soils are usually metamorphic clays, and therefore give 
similar results. A loose surface resting on a mellow clay subsoil 
will give excellent results in a cool district. A clayey soil will in 
most cases greatly benefit by being irrigated. 

Sandy soils contain a greater or lesser proportion of pure silica. 
The wine they produce is generally light and delicate, more so than 
that produced by any other. In them the vine grows very freely 
and begins to bear early, probably on account of the facility with 
which the roots can spread. 

Calcareous or limestone soils. The presence of lime has a marked 
influence on the strength of the wine that made on a limestone 
soil containing as much as 5 or 6 per cent, more alcohol than wine 
grown on sandy soil. They are therefore more desirable in a cold 
than in a warm climate. The vine does not grow very vigorously 
on such soils, although lime is to be found more extensively in the 
wood than in the fruit. 

Plutonic soils. Under this category may be classed granitic, 
porphyritic, basaltic, and the so-called volcanic soils ; they are, as 
a rule, rich in potash, and therefore admirably suited for viti- 
culture. The Hermitage vineyard in France is situated on granitic 
soil ; the Tokay of Hungary on basalt. The wines made on such 
soils are therefore excellent, and these soils will grow vines for 
many years without becoming exhausted. 


Peaty soils are those rich in organic matter, and, consequently, in 
nitrogen. Although very rich and forming good agricultural soils, they 
must be said to be less suitable than the others for viticulture. The 
nitrogen stimulates the woody development, but the fruit is watery 
and the resulting wine poor in sugar, acids, and tannin does not 
keep well. 

The presence of iron in a soil has a great effect in increasing the 
colour of the wine. It is probably for this reason that our Australian 
wines are, as a rule, so rich in colour. Some soils in France con- 
taining magnesia produce white wines of very high quality. 

The richest soil does not produce the best wine. In many 
instances it is rather the reverse. Some of the best wines in the 
world are grown on soil so poor as to be almost unfit for any other 
culture but that of the vine. Rich soils more frequently produce 
common wines, but in great abundance. 

Such are, in a general way, the chief kinds of soils and the manner 
in which they influence the resulting wine. It must be borne in mind 
that under each head there will be some which will give better results 
than others, although the differences between them may be so slight as 
to be only noticeable in the wine itself, and not apparent to an 
ordinary observer. Chemical analysis enables us to find out all the 
elements in a soil as well as the proportions in which they exist ; by 
adding certain elements to one soil, however, so as to make it identical 
with another, we cannot be sure of obtaining the same results from 
it, even if the other conditions of climate, &c., be identical. 

In many European wine-growing districts, it is common to find two 
vineyards, only separated by a wall, planted with the same varieties 
and cultivated in the same manner, producing wines of very different 
commercial values. No addition of substances to the soil will enable 
the proprietor of the inferior vineyard to produce wine equal to that 
of his more fortunate neighbour. 

There is a subtle something in the soil that gives this superiority, 
and which it is impossible to impart by artificial means. Most beneficial 
results may be obtained by the addition of certain substances with a 
view of increasing the yield, but the quality of the wine cannot be 
similarly controlled. 

These remarks must not prejudice one against the analysis of soils, 
which is of great help, as we shall see later. 



It is our intention to devote a special chapter to the description of 
the different varieties of vine usually cultivated, but we shall here say 
a few words about the influence of the variety on the character of the 
wine, and mention some of the points on which varieties differ from 
one another. 

The variety, or " cepage," as it is concisely termed in French, is 
considered by many to be the most important factor of the wine. We 
prefer to give it third place, the climate and soil being what may be 
termed fixed factors, whilst the selection of sorts is entirely at the 
discretion of the vine-grower. 

It is necessary to distinguish between choice and common varieties. 
The former are those from which high-class wines are made. The 
latter are devoted to the production of ordinary wines of commerce 
they make up for the inferior quality of their product by being 
much heavier bearers, and hardier than the more delicate choice 

It is to be regretted that many persons, tempted by the prospect of 
heavy yields, plant common to the exclusion of choice varieties, and 
thus sacrifice quality to quantity an injudicious course of action, the 
evil effects of which will inevitably be felt as soon as competition 
begins to be active. The higher class wine, commanding a higher 
price, amply compensates for the lesser yield. 

The distinction between choice and common varieties is not 
absolute, but relative. It depends to some extent upon the condition 
of soil and climate. 

A vine which is a heavy bearer, but which gives too weak a wine 
in a cold district, may give excellent results in a warmer one ; or a 
sort may be a choice one in one soil and a common one in another. 
As an example, we may mention the Gam ay of Beaujolais and the 
Pinot of Burgundy. The soil of the Beaujolais district is granitic and 
schistose, whereas that of Burgundy is calcareous. In the former the 
Gamay gives a superior wine to the Pinot ; in the Burgundy district, 
on the other hand, it is the Pinot alone which gives the celebrated 
wines which make the name of Burgundy a household word through- 
out the world, whilst the Gamay is looked upon as an inferior sort. 

It is thus of the greatest importance that the variety should be 
suited to the other conditions; we have in the judicious choie of it 


a means of producing a wine of, to some extent, what character we 
wish. In a very warm climate we want to make a wine as light 
as possible, in a cold one it is a strong wine we must try to 
make. The strength of wines made from different varieties in the 
same vineyard will greatly differ. For example, one may give a wine 
containing 14 per cent, of alcohol whilst another would produce one 
containing over 20 per cent. 

It follows that the variety which gives the best results in the first 
or cool region would be utterly unsuited for the third region, at least 
for the production of light wine. Although it might yield a strong 
sweet wine of high quality as such, the demand for this class of wine 
is only limited. 

All varieties are not influenced alike by an increase in the warmth 
of the climate its effect in increasing the alcoholic strength of the 
wine is more considerable on some than on others. For example, a 
certain sort might give a wine containing 18 per cent, of alcohol if 
grown at Lillydale, whilst it might contain 26 per cent, if grown at 
Rutherglen. The relative strength for a second variety might be 
Lillydale 20 per cent, and Rutherglen 23 per cent. The increase in 
strength would be 8 per cent, for the first sort, and only 3 per cent, 
for the second, which, in other words, gives more constant results 
under varied climatic conditions than the first sort. 

The time of coming into leaf in the spring and of the ripening of the 
grapes varies greatly. It is very advisable that the vine-grower should 
keep a permanent record of the date of the first appearance of the leaves 
and flowers on his vines. Late budding varities are to be recommended 
in localities subject to spring frosts, whilst early ripening sorts should 
be cultivated if the weather about vintage time be usually unfavor- 
able. Some varieties have greater or less power of resisting frost, 
once they are in leaf, whilst others are capable of bearing fruit on the 
secondary buds if the main ones have been destroyed. The suitability 
or otherwise of a variety also depends on its capacity for resisting 
fungus or insect diseases, or being more suited to a special style of 
pruning. These peculiarities will be given in the next chapter where 
each vine will be described in detail. 




The word " Ampelography " denotes the description of different 
kinds of vines. 

The family of the Ampelideae is divided into several genera ; the 
only one which interests us here is the genus Vitis, which is in turn 
divided into several species. 

The ordinary grape vine, Vitis Vinifera, being the most important, 
is the species we shall devote most attention to. There are several 
others which we must also describe, amongst which are the American 
vines, which have assumed great importance of late years, on account 
of the remarkable resistance they oppose to the attacks of the 

Each species comprises many more or less distinct sorts, or 
" cepages," as they are termed in French ; the term being very con- 
venient, as these different sorts are not all sufficiently distinct to 
justify their being classed as different varieties from a strictly 
botanical point of view, although the term may be used in a general 

As vines are always propagated by cuttings, and any issue derived 
from seed may vary considerably from the parent plant, it is more 
correct to look upon all the vines of a " cepage " collectively, as an 
individual, of which each vine is a part. In other words, the 
differences between "cepages" are individual differences, the many 
millions of each which exist together only making up or being, so 
to speak, part of the original vine from which they were multiplied 
in the shape of cuttings. 

The differences between these sorts are of the first importance as 
far as the resulting wine is concerned ; they, therefore, are of far 
greater interest to the practical vigneron than to the botanist. 

In this chapter the most important " cepages " are described in 
alphabetical order under the different species to which they belong. 



These are very numerous, and embrace over a thousand sorts, 
all of which belong to the species Vitis Vinifera, many of which, 
fortunately, need not be mentioned here. 

We shall confine ourselves to those which are usually cultivated 
in Australia, as well as a few which might be adopted with excellent 
results, according to circumstances, for wine-making purposes, 
without mentioning the numerous table grapes, as they come more 
strictly under the domain of horticulture. 

The most usual synonyms of each are given, but it must be 
borne in mind that the classification of the different sorts is by no 
means easy. Authorities on the subject often hold very different 
opinions as to the identity or otherwise of sorts called by different 
or even by the same name in different districts in Europe. 

With regard to the time of ripening of the fruit, we have adopted 
Pulliafs system of dividing the time of ripening of all grapes 
into three periods. The different sorts ripen during one or other of 

Sorts marked * are those already extensively cultivated in Victoria; 
those marked j" have with certainty been introduced into the colony, 
but are not extensively cultivated. 

f Aramon. Synonyms : Buchardfs Prince, Ugni Noir, Re- 

vala'ire, Okors zem Kek, &c. 

Although only a common red variety it was very extensively 
cultivated in the south of France before the invasion of the phyl- 
loxera, on account of its great prolificacy. Foex estimates its 
average crop at about IjOOO gallons per acre, and states that it has 
been known to produce 3,500 gallons per acre. It makes up for its 
great bearing capabilities by only yielding an ordinary wine, especially 
if the soil be rich and the crop heavy. 

In the third or warm region of Victoria it would prove a valuable 
sort ; its wine, being light, would be very suitable for blending with 
other sorts, with the object of producing a good commercial wine. 
It comes into leaf early, and is, therefore, liable to suffer from late 
frosts. It ripens in the third period, and its thin skin makes the 
berries liable to rot in a moist climate. 


It resists the mildew pretty well, but is somewhat sensitive to 
the attacks of the oidium. As the Aramon is always cultivated for 
quantity rather than quality it must be planted in a rich soil which 
is at the same time deep and free. 

In the south of France it is always pruned short. 

Foex gives the following description of it : 

Stem strong and very vigorous in rich soil; spreading grower; 
shoots of a fine light-red colour in summer, greyish in winter ; knots 
prominent and close together, with a dirty white, much-developed 
bud ; leaves large, not deeply indented, upper side glossy, under side 
covered with loose down, petiolar sinus open ; bunch voluminous, 
long, almost cylindrical, or slightly shouldered with a tender, herba- 
ceous stalk; berries large, round, very juicy; not very good for 
table use, though sufficiently sweet ; of a light black (not intense) 
colour where the ground is moist, and the yield very considerable. 
It is not as yet cultivated to any extent in Victoria. 

f Asplran. Synonyms : Spiran, Verdal, Epiran, Riveyran, 
PIT an, Verdai. 

A choice red grape, not cultivated in Victoria as yet, although it 
would prove a valuable sort in the warm region of the colony. The 
wine made from it is light in colour light, delicate, and keeps well. 
It is one of the choice varieties of the south of France. It is a good 
bearer, and gives from 250 to 400 gallons per acre. 

It comes into leaf medium early, but does not suffer from frost. 

The grapes ripen early in the third period. 

The Aspiran suffers but little from most fungus diseases. 

The most suitable soil for it is a deep, free soil, preferably gravelly, 
and of a reddish colour. 

It is usually pruned short. Its grapes are excellent for table 

Foex describes it as follows: "Rather vigorous grower; shoots 
semi-erect, slender, of light-red colour, with buds a medium distance 
apart. Leaves of medium size, five-lobed, deeply indented, teeth deep 
uneven, rather broad, giving the leaf a very elegant appearance, 
upper surface of a yellowish-green and smooth, under surface with 
a slight woolly down near the veins; bunch medium size, close, 
somewhat shouldered ; berries medium size, slightly oval; skin rather 


thick, of a purplish-black, covered with bloom ; juicy, of a refresh- 
ing taste, very agreeable to eat. 

* Aucarot. 

This seems to be variety of white Pinot, so we shall refer to it 
later on. 

* Baxter's Sherry. 

Au ordinary white grape, somewhat extensively cultivated in 
Victoria, which gives a wine of an exaggerated sherry character. It 
is a heavy bearer, and gives from 600 to 800 gallons per acre. It 
comes into leaf and ripens in the second period. It may be described 
as follows: Vigorous, rather spreading grower, shoots of a reddish 
yellow colour, long and slender; leaves large of a peculiar tender, rather 
flabby texture, divided into five lobes, or sometimes seven lobes, the 
two extra ones being around the first pair of secondary veins on the 
midrib, petiolar sinus rather open; upper surface bright green and 
smooth, under surface covered with fine silky down; a few hairs 
on the veins. Bunch large, rather loose, with oval berries. 

* Black Hambro*. Synonyms: Black Hamburg, Frankenthal, 
Schwartz or Blauer Trollinger, &c., &c. 

A very fine black table grape, which can also be used for wine- 
making purposes; in the third region it will give very good results, 
as the wine made from it is light and delicate, and it is a heavy 
bearer, ripens during the second period; it is a vigorous grower with 
thick shoots, leaves large, not deeply indented, teeth rather rounded 
off, upper surface smooth, under surface very slightly downy. The 
secondary veins of the mid-rib are almost white and very distinct, 
giving the whole leaf a characteristic appearance. Bunch large and 
rather loose. Berries large, almost round, and thick-skinned. The 
celebrated vine at Hampton Court is a Black Hambro'. 

* Black Prince and *Black St. Peter. 

Two more table varieties, which give good results for wine-making 
purposes in the warmer districts of the colony. They are both very 
vigorous varieties, and may be pruned long. 

Bouschet Hybrids. 

The Bouschet Hybrids are a group of sorts, being the outcome of 
the experiments of Louis Bouschet in 1828. He endeavoured to 


produce by hybridization between the Tinto or Teinturier and the 
ordinary cepages of the South of France a new variety with the red 
juice of the former and the many advantages of the latter sorts. His 
experiments were successful, and he and his sons have since given us 
many varieties, the best known of which are the Petit Bouschet 
(Aramon x Tinto), Alicante Bouschet (Grenache x Tinto), Terret 
Bouschet, and Aspiran Bouschet. These sorts are of value for the 
production of intensely deep-coloured wines. 

* Burgundy. See Pinots. 

* Cabernet Sauvignon. Synonyms : Petit Cabernet, Vidure, 
Navarre, Vinidure, Sauvignonne, and in Australia it is fre- 
queutly, but erroneously, called Carbinet. 

This is one of the choicest red varieties of France. It forms the 
basis of all the best vineyards of Bordeaux, and is largely cultivated 
in the cool region of Victoria. The wine made from it cannot be 
surpassed. As wine made from it is a little rough when young, it is 
better to mix it with some other sorts at vintage time ; the wine is 
then ready for market sooner than would otherwise be the case. 

It is unfortunately a shy bearer, and is very subject to set badly at 
flowering time. It is also very liable to fungoid diseases, especially 
oidium and anthracnosis (black spot). Under very favorable conditions 
it may give as much as 500 gals, per acre, but the average in good soils 
cannot be said to be more than 200 gals. 

It is only in the cool region of Victoria that the cultivation of 
the Cabernet is to be recommended. In the warm parts the advantages 
gained from it are not sufficient to make up for the small yield. 

It comes into leaf late, and escapes late frosts. It ripens at the end 
of the second period. 

The soil which suits it best is a pebbly soil resting on a clay sub- 
soil, also gravelly, so as to insure thorough drainage, the Cabernet 
suffering, perhaps, more than any other sort from an excess of 
moisture around its roots. 

It is at all times, unfortunately, very subject to fungoid diseases, 
especially oidium and anthracnose, but is exceedingly so if badly 

The fruit-bearing buds of the Cabernet are situated at some distance 
from the old wood. It follows that it must be pruned long ; if short- 
pruned, it will often prove perfectly sterile. 



In addition to its many other advantages, it gives excellent results 
when grafted on other varieties. 

The following are the characteristics by which it may be recognised : 
Vigorous, somewhat spreading grower; wood of a reddish rather 
dark-fawn colour, of medium thickness, with buds of a medium size; 
the leaves are very characteristic (five-lobed), the indentations or sinus 
being deep and the lobes overlapping each other towards the outside 
in such a way as to make it appear that the leaves were pierced with 
five holes ; upper-surface of a fine dark-green colour, free from down 
and glossy, but uneven ; under-surface covered with close short 
down ; teeth large and very uneven. The leaf has a peculiar crisp 
appearance. Bunch of medium size, conical, slightly shouldered and 
rather loose. Berries small, round, thick dark skin, covered with a 
beautiful bluish-grey bloom ; they are rather apt to fall off when 
very ripe. 

* Carmenet. Synonyms: Gros Cabernet, Cabernet Franc, 
Grosse Vindure, Petit fer, Breton, Veronais, Arrouya. 

This variety differs but slightly from the preceding one, the wine 
made from it being almost identical, although perhaps less perfumed. 
It is not superior to the Cabernet in any respect, and will not do in a 
limestone soil. 

It differs from the Cabernet in the following points : Wood of a 
paler colour ; leaves coarser and less glossy, but of the same shape ; 
bunches rather smaller ; berries larger, with thinner skin. It is to 
be found mixed with the Cabernet in most of the Victorian vineyards 
where the latter is cultivated. 

* Carignane. Synonyms : Carignan, Bois dur (signifies hard 
wood), Crignane, Catalan, and improperly Mataro in some parts 
of the south of France. 

This is a rather common -red variety. It is extensively cultivated 
in the south of France, where it gives very good results. Foex says 
that it is perhaps the one which combines in the highest degree both 
quality and quantity. It frequently gives crops of 1,500 gallons 
per acre in France. 

It comes into leaf late and is thus able to escape spring frosts. 
It ripens during the third period. Unfortunately its greatest fault is 
its susceptibility to the attacks of fungoid diseases, especially oidium 
and anthracnosis, and ita liability to set badly at flowering time. 


It should only be cultivated in the dryer parts of the colony 
where these diseases are not very prevalent. 

It requires a well-drained, free, clayey soil. 

The Carignane is very well adapted for the gooseberry mode of train- 
ing, being an erect grower and requiring short pruning. It may be 
described as follows : Vigorous erect grower, wood strong and 
thick, of light-red colour, hard and brittle, short-jointed at the 
base ; buds dark in colour and rather large ; leaves large, wrinkly 
and uneven, five-lobed, the sinus being deep ; upper surface dark- 
green and smooth, under surface slightly downy ; the leaves 
assume a fine red colour at vintage time ; bunch large ; berries rather 
long, slightly oblong, juicy, not very good to eat. It is cultivated 
in Victoria. 

* Chasselas, Golden. Synonyms : Chasselas de Fontainebleau, 
Pendant, Valais Blanc, Sussling, Frauentraube, Gutedel, 
Marzemina Eianca, Chrupka, &c., &c. 

A white grape, respecting the value of which for wine-making 
purposes the most varied opinions prevail. It is recognised by all 
to be an excellent table grape. 

Although many authorities condemn it as a wine grape, we are 
not of their opinion, and can confidently recommend it for the 
production of a clean light wine. It presents the peculiarity of 
giving a similar wine in countries subject to very different climates. 
In Switzerland it gives a good wine where most other varieties 
would only produce a crude sour wine, whilst in warm countries 
it never gives a very strong wine. 

The cuttings of this variety should be selected with the greatest 
care, as one often finds certain vines in a block of Chasselas almost 
sterile. This is due to faulty selection of cuttings in the first place. 

Although one of the first sorts to come into leaf, it does not suffer 
considerably from frost. It is one of the earliest sorts to ripen (first 

It is rather liable to fungus diseases, but not excessively so. 

Although thriving in any soil, it seems to give the best results in a 
free well-drained loam, with clay subsoil. 

It is well adapted to either long or short pruning, but does not 
thrive if trained on the gooseberry -bush system. 

D 2 


The Chasselas may be described as follows : Rather vigorous 
grower, wood of a reddish brown colour, often short-jointed near the 
old wood; leaves about as broad as long, five-lobed, but not deeply 
indented ; teeth broad, obtuse, and almost even ; upper surface 
smooth, but not glossy, of a yellowish-green colour ; under surface 
without down and similar to the upper, only paler. The young 
leaves are conspicuous by their deep yellowish bronze tint. Bunch 
above the average size, conical, shouldered, more or less compact. 
Berries rather large, thick-skinned, with small seeds, and of delicious 
flavour. When grown in the shade they are of pale-green semi- 
transparent colour, but if exposed to the sun of a golden bronze. It 
is rather largely grown in Victoria. 

The Chasselas Violet, Chasselas Rose, and Chasselas de Falloux 
are only of value as table grapes, the latter is somewhat similar to the 
Chasselas Rose; they differ from the golden chiefly in the colour of 
the fruit. 

Chasselas Musqut is another sort, differing chiefly in the Muscat 
flavour of its fruit. 

Cinsailt. Synonyms: Bourdales, Boudales, Espagnin, Salerne, 
and sometimes, but erroneously, Picardan Noir and Ulliade 

A good red variety, largely cultivated in the south of France, on 
drier soils. It yields as much as 400 gallons per acre of a good, 
light, red wine. It comes into leaf late, and ripens early in the 
second period. It is similar in many respects to the Oeillade, but is 
a more spreading grower, with more slender shoots. Leaves smaller, 
more deeply indented, and more downy underneath than those of the 
Oeillade. Berries also larger. It is a good variety for table purposes. 
Clairette. Synonyms : Blanquette, Cotticour. 

A white variety from which some excellent French wines are made, 
It is very long-lived, but suffers from a peculiar form of anthracnosis> 
termed punctuated anthracnosis. 

The average crop it gives is about 250 gallons per acre. It is very 
well suited for table purposes. 

Corinth (Currant). 

A small berried seedless variety of Muscat, of value for the pro- 
duction of currants with a fine flavour. It is very similar to the 
Muscats, and, as a rule, less hardy than the Zante. 


* DolcettO Nero. Synonyms : Nebbiolo, Bignona, Uva d^Acqui. 
A good red grape, largely cultivated in the north of Italy. It is 

better suited for the second region of the colony than either of the 
others, and fears drought more than moisture. It is cultivated to some 
extent in the Bendigo district is a good bearer, ripens very early ; the 
wine made from it is light, clean, pleasant, and of good colour. It 
will thrive in almost any soil suitable for vine culture, and should be 
pruned long. 

This sort is in many respects very similar to the Malbec. 

The Dolcetto is rather a vigorous grower, with filbert-coloured 
short-jointed shoots, buds large and whitish before bursting. Leaves 
of medium size, smooth and almost glossy above, downy underneath, 
three or five lobed, sinus round and rather deep, pointed teeth ; the 
young leaves are of a reddish colour, covered with down, and 
become red before falling off. Bunch of medium size, pyramidal, 
long, rather close, with a brown stalk. Berries medium, round, 
bluish-black, covered with bloom, with thin skin and juicy pulp. 
They fall off pretty easily when ripe. 

f Doradillo. Synonyms : Jaen Blanc, Plateado or Plateadillo, 

White Syrian (?). 

A very prolific, white Spanish grape, capable of yielding very 
heavy crops of light wine. It is admirably suited for the third or 
warm region of the colony. The fruit is suitable for table as well as 
wine purposes. 

* Espart. See Mataro. 

fFolle. Synonyms: Enrag eat. Plant Madame, Grosse Chalosse, 
Picpouille Blanc, Plant de Grece, &c. 

La Folle is the white grape from which all the celebrated brandies 
of the Cognac district were made before the invasion of the phylloxera. 
In some parts it is used for blending with red grapes, as it greatly 
improves the wine made from them, rendering it lighter and more 
agreeable. Wine made from it alone is usually of little value. 

The average crop it gives is about 250 gallons per acre. As it 
comes into leaf rather early it fears late frosts; it ripens during the 
second period. 

It is not very liable to fungoid diseases, and will thrive in most 
soils. In France it is pruned short. 


La Folle is not a very vigorous grower. Shoots thick and short- 
jointed, of a light-reddish tint. Leaves five-lobed sinus, of limited 
depth, especially the upper lateral ones ; upper surface of a peculiar 
dull green colour, rather flabby, reminding somewhat of the Isabella 
( Vitis Labrusca), free from down, with veins of a reddish tint, under 
surface rather downy; bunch medium size, close; berries rather large, 
round. With one exception it is not cultivated in Victoria. 

* Gamay, Petit (Small). Synonyms : Gamay Noir, Plant 

d'Arcenant, Gamay Nicholas. 

A good red variety extensively cultivated in the Beaujolais district 
of France. 

It is admirably adapted for the first or cool region of the colony, 
although rather liable to frosts, as it comes into leaf early; it ripens 
during the second period, and is a heavy bearer. It is rather sus- 
ceptible to the attacks of the oidium. The wine made from it varies 
more than that of most of the preceding sorts with the character of 
the soil. In a granite or porphyry soil it produces the excellent wines 
of Beaujolais, whilst in the Burgundy district, where the soil is rich 
in lime, it yields a very inferior wine, although the climate of both 
places is practically the same. 

It ought to be pruned short, and is a moderately vigorous upright 
grower, with shoots of medium size ; leaves medium, five lobed, 
teeth short and irregular, upper-surface light-green, under-surface 
almost free from down ; bunch medium, close ; berries medium, 
slightly oval, black, covered with bloom. 

The Gros Gamay, also called Gamay Bond or Gamay d' Or leans, 
differs little from it, but is, if anything, a heavier bearer, although 
the wine made from it is of inferior quality; it differs chiefly from the 
preceding one by the berries being round instead of oval. It is only 
to be found in a few Victorian vineyards. 

* Gouais. Synonyms : Burger Blanc (white), Elbling, &c., &c. 
The Gouais has been confounded with La Folle, from which, 

however, it is totally distinct. 

It deserves mention, as it is cultivated to some extent in Victoria, 
but is, at the best, an inferior sort, the wine made from it being 
weak, flat, poor in tannin, and not keeping well. It is a very heavy 
bearer and yields, under favorable circumstances, 800 gallons per 


acre. It may be planted to a limited extent in a vineyard if blended 
with other sorts at vintage time, and would prove of value for brandy 
making. It is rather subject to oidium, and the fruit does not 
always set well. It is suited to long and short pruning. The Gouais 
is a vigorous erect grower, which can be recognised by the purple 
colour of its shoots during the summer. Leaves large, dark-green, 
almost entire; bunch of medium size, rather close; berries rather large, 
round, thin-skinned, liable to rot at vintage time. 

* Grenache. Synonyms : Roussilon, Alicante, Arragonais, 

Granaxa, Rivesaltes, Bois Jaune (yellow-wood), Redondal. 

A choice red variety, largely cultivated in the south of France and 
Spain, where some celebrated wines are made from it. It will give the 
best results in the second and third regions of the colony, where it has 
already been planted to some extent. It is especially suited for the 
production of wines of a Port character; the wine made from it has a 
good bouquet and considerable character, but its colour is not perma- 
nent; after a few years it assumes a tawny brown, or sometimes almost 
a yellowish tint similar to old Port. As a rule it is better to mix it 
with some other sorts, such as Carignane, Aramon, or Mataro at vintage 
time; it will improve the resulting wine by giving it more character 
and causing the wine to mature sooner. It should only be made into 
wine by itself for the production of a Port or liqueur wine, and 
should then be grown on pebbly soil, preferably on a granite 
formation. For blending purposes it should be cultivated on a richer 

It is fairly prolific, and gives crops of 350 gallons per acre. Not 
very subject to oidium, it suffers considerably from anthracnosis 
and mildew or peronospora, and should be pruned short. 

The Grenache is a very vigorous semi-erect grower, with thick 
shoots of a yellowish colour, short- jointed with swoollen buds, the 
extremities often remain green in the winter ; leaves medium size, 
smooth on both sides, very glossy on the upper ; bunch large, close ; 
berries medium, slightly oval, not very dark, covered with bloom, 
and thin-skinned. There is also a White Grenache similar in most 
respects to the red, and an excellent variety for the third region, 
especially for the production of a full-bodied wine. 

* Hermitage (Red). See Shiraz. 

* Hermitage (White). See Roussanne. 


Maccabeo. Synonyms: Ugni Blanc (white), Queue de Renard, 


A white variety not cultivated in Victoria, but of value for the pro- 
duction of fruity wines in the third region. A good bearer, which 
will adapt itself to almost any soil. It comes into leaf late, and 
ripens very late (at the end of the third period). 

* Malaga. 

An oval grape of a purple colour, well adapted for raisin-making, 
and, on account of its thick skin and good carrying qualities, of great 
value as a table grape. It ripens in the second period. 

* Malbeck. Synonyms : Cot, Baloutzat Gourdoux, Estrangey, 
Noir (black) de Pressac, and many others, in Australia some- 
times erroneously termed Red Chasselas. 

A choice red variety, much cultivated in the Bordeaux district, 
where it helps to a considerable extent to make the best clarets. The 
wine made from it resembles in many respects that made from the 
Cabernet Sauvignon, but is lighter than it, and matures more rapidly. 
This sort is admirably suited for the second region of the colony, 
where it is already cultivated to some extent, and parts of the first, 
although it is liable to set its fruit very badly in cool moist 
localities. The wine made from it in the third region, being rather 
strong, would benefit by being blended with that of such kinds as 
Mataro, Aramon, &c. It is a pretty good bearer, and in well drained 
soil will give good crops. It comes into leaf rather early, and is 
liable to suffer from frost, but has the peculiarity of bearing fruit on 
shoots growing off the old wood if the normal fruit-bearing shoots are 
destroyed. It ripens towards the end of the first period. 

It suffers but slightly from oidium, but is, on the other hand, very 
liable to anthracnosis. 

It gives best results on soils rich in lime. 

Although capable of bearing fruit when pruned short, long pruning 
suits it very much better. It is the sort grown in the part of France 
where the vines are grown on what is termed the " Chaintres" system, 
which gives the plant an enormous extension, as we shall see further 
on. The Malbeck is a vigorous grower, with wood of a brownish- 
fawn colour, rather short-jointed, with large buds; leaves above medium 
size, distinctly three-lobed, of a pinkish- white when they first come out ; 
upper surface smooth, but wrinkly and uneven, often of a reddish colour 


in parts, the remainder being of a pale-green colour ; under-surface 
covered with flaky down ; bunch large, branched, not very close ; 
berries rather large, round, dark violet, covered with bloom ; stems 
red, especially the extremities, to which the berries are fixed. 


There are several sorts of Malvoisie, differing chiefly from each 
other in the colour of the fruit. They are suited for the production of 
sweet or liqueur wines in the third region and the warmer parts of the 
second. The grapes have a characteristic flavour comparable to that 
of the Muscats. They are, as a rule, very subject to oidium. 

* Mataro. Synonyms : Espar, Esparte, Spar, Mourvedre, Balzac, 
Catalan, Charnet, Flouron, &c. 

A valuable red sort, largely cultivated in the south of France and 
in Spain, and admirably suited for the production of commercial 
wines in the second and third regions of the colony it is not suitable 
for the first. The wine made from it, although somewhat rough, is 
light and of good colour and keeping qualities, and is admirably 
suited for blending with other sorts such as the Aspiran or Shiraz, 
and many others. It yields, under favorable circumstances, as much 
as 1,000 gallons per acre. 

It comes into leaf late and ripens during the third period. 

It is very hardy, and will grow in almost any soil, but gives the 
best results in a limestone formation. It is not subject to fungus 
diseases of any kind. It should be pruned short, and is well adapted 
for the gooseberry method of training on account of its upright 

The Mataro is a vigorous erect grower, with short- jointed wood of a 
reddish -brown colour and large buds. Leaves medium size, five-lobed, 
but not deeply indented, petiolar sinus open, two series of rather sharp 
teeth, upper-surface dark-green, rather rough, under-surface downy 
and whitish leaf -stalk and veins dark reddish-brown; bunch 
medium, close, with small shoulders and woody stalk; berries of 
medium size, round, black, covered with bloom, not agreeable to eat. 

fMerlot. Synonyms: Vitraille, Bigney, Crabutet, Plant Medoc. 
A choice red variety, cultivated to some extent in the best Bor- 
deaux vineyards. The wine made from it is lighter, and has less 
bouquet than that of the Cabernet Sauvignon, but it matures faster. 
It is an excellent sort for the first or cool region. 


It is a prolific sort, comes into leaf rather late, and ripens during 
the second period. The soil which suits it best is the same as 
for the Cabernet Sauvignon. It may be pruned short, but gives 
better results with long pruning. 

The Merlot is a vigorous semi-erect grower, with wood of a greyish- 
fawn colour, short-jointed, ribbed : leaves broader than long, of medium 
size, five-lobed, with petiolar sinus open as well as the others ; teeth 
sharp and uneven ; upper-surface smooth, uneven ; under-surface 
downy ; bunch long, conical, ramified ; berries small, round, uneven, 
of a blue-black colour, covered with much bloom. 

Mission Grape. 

A variety extensively cultivated in California, where it was prob- 
ably imported from Morocco. It is considered by the American 
authors as a common sort, giving large crops of strong coarse wine, 
of little value. 

Mondeuse. Synonyms : Mouteuse, Molette, Persaigne, Savo- 
yanne, Maldoux. 

A good variety for the first region of Victoria, being a heavy bearer, 
giving as much as 800 gallons per acre in Savoy and the adjoining 
departments of France, where it is extensively cultivated. The wine 
made from it becomes of high quality with age, and keeps well. 

It is a very hardy variety, will do well in almost any soil, and 
gives good results with either long or short pruning, the former being 
preferable. It comes into leaf late, and ripens at the end of the 
second period. 

The Mondeuse is a vigorous spreading grower, with long-jointed 
shoots of a greyish-yellow colour ; leaves rather large, longer than 
broad, three-lobed, smooth above, downy beneath; bunch large and 
loose; berries of medium size, slightly oval, of a somewhat acid 
and astringent flavour. 

t MorrasteL Synonyms : Mourrastel, Perpignan, and some- 
times, but erroneously, Mataro. 

A valuable variety, in many respects similar to the Mataro, from 

which it may be distinguished by its wood being of a darker and 

redder colour ; its leaves are paler, and with rounder lobes. The 

young leaves are reddish, whilst those of the Mataro are whitish. 

It bears as much as the Mataro, of a somewhat higher class wine. 


f Morrillon. Synonyms : Gros Plant Dore, Maitre Noir. 
Seems to be a variety of Pinot, with large bunches and large 
berries. It is better suited for the table than for wine-making. It 
must not be confounded with the Morillon Blanc or 'ordinary white 

* Muscats. 

There are many different Muscats, which it is useless for 
us to enumerate here. We shall endeavour to describe one or two 
of the principal ones, to which the others all bear considerable 

The character common to them all is the strongly perfumed flavour 
of their fruit, which renders them only suitable for the production of 
liqueur wines, raisins, or table grapes. The strong Muscat flavour 
renders them unsuitable for blending with other sorts to make a light 
wine. We shall give a description of some of the leading sorts. 

* Muscat de Frontignan. 

This is the best Muscat variety for wine-making purposes. It is 
admirably suited for the production of high class liqueur wines in the 
third region of the colony, and is a fairly good bearer. It comes into 
leaf early, and ripens at the end of the second period. It is very 
subject to oidium, anthracnosis, and all fungoid diseases. 

Either long or short pruning suits it. The flavour of the fruit is 
superior with the former. It is a vigorous rather spreading grower, 
with thick, short-jointed shoots of * reddish-brown colour ; leaves 
medium size, five-lobed, but not very deeply indented as a rule, two 
series of long sharp teeth, upper-surface smooth and even, under- 
surface almost devoid of down ; bunch cylindrical, close, not much 
shouldered ; berries round, medium size, of a beautiful amber colour 
on the White Frontignan, but of a reddish-brown on the Brown 
Frontignan. These two only differ in the colour of their fruit. 

* Muscat Gordo Blanco. 

This is the best raisin grape we have, and is extensively cultivated 
in the third region of Victoria. In its general characters it pretty 
closely resembles the former, but is more vigorous and a better 
bearer, whilst its berries are oval. Considerable difference of opinion 
exists as to its identity with the White Muscat of Alexandria; 
although many authorities say that they are the same sort, it is not 


probable that this is the case. This Muscat is an excellent table 
grape, but for wine-making purposes is inferior to the Frontignan. 

f Oeillade, Synonyms : Ulliade, Ouillade. 

One of the choice red varieties of the south of France which, 
although not cultivated to any extent in Victoria, would prove of 
value in the third region. Its wine is very clean, delicate, and light 
in colour, and would be very suitable for blending with that of such 
kinds as the Mataro, as it would reduce the roughness of the resulting 
wine. It is a good bearer, and thrives best in deep, well-drained 
soils. In schistose formations it gives very good results. It is 
subject to oidium and anthracnosis in moist places. It comes into 
leaf early, ripens during the second period, and requires short pruning. 
It is a semi-erect moderately vigorous grower, with thick short- 
jointed reddish wood and large buds. Leaves medium, rather longer 
than broad, five-lobed, teeth large and sharp, upper-surface dark- 
green and rather rough, under-surface rather downy; bunch large, 
loose; shouldered; berries large, oval, black, covered with bloom, 
juicy. There is also a White Oeillade very similar to the red in its 
general characters and producing a very good wine. 

* Pinots. 

The Pinots are a group of sorts, all of which are of great value 
and admirably suited for the cool region of this colony. They are the 
sorts cultivated in the Burgundy, Chablis, and Champagne districts, 
and only give very high-class wines on a limestone formation (p. 27). 
As the type of the group, we will first consider the 

* Pinot Noir (Black). Synonyms : Smooth-leaved Burgundy, 

Burgundy, Black Cluster, Noirien, Franc Pinot, Morillon Noir, 
Auvergnat Noir, Salvagnin Noir, Blauer Klavuer, &c., &c. 

This choice red variety is cultivated, to the exclusion of other 
kinds, in the best vineyards of Burgundy, such as Chambertin, Clos 
Vougeot, &c. In the cool region of Victoria, on limestone soils, it 
would give an excellent wine. Unfortunately, it is a poor bearer; 
its average yield in the Burgundy district is only about 200 gallons 
per acre. It is very free from fungus diseases, but does not always 
set its fruit well. It is usually pruned short, but gives far better 
results if pruned long. 


It is one of the first to come into leaf, and als one of the first sorts 
to ripen (early in the first period). 

It is a spreading grower of less than medium vigour, with slender 
long-jointed shoots of a slightly purple-grey colour. Leaves medium, 
five-lobed, not unlike those of the Cabernet, but not so deeply indented, 
petiolar sinus open, teeth short, blunt, and even, upper-surface 
almost glossy, under-surface slightly downy; bunch small, cylindrical, 
very close ; berries small, rather thick-skinned, not perfectly round, 
often deformed from being very close in the bunch, very black, 
covered with bloom, and very juicy. 

* Pinot Meunier. Synonyms : Miller's Burgundy, Meunier, 

Blanche Feuille, Morillon Taconne, &c. 

Similar to the Finot Noir in almost every respect, but differing 
from it by the leaves being covered both above and below with a 
considerable amount of flaky down, giving it the appearance of having 
been dusted with flour, whence its name. The red wine made from it 
resembles that of the Pinot Noir,l>ut it is lighter, and does not keep so 
well. In the Champagne district it is the most extensively cultivated 
sort, and is one of the few cases in which white wine is made from 
red grapes on a large scale. 

t Pinot Gris. Synonyms : Beurot, Fromentot, Auxoit, Au- 
vergnat Gris, Gris Cordelier, Malvoisie (improperly) Levraut, 
Edel Clavner. 

A choice pink variety, yielding an excellent white wine. It is 
from this grape that the highest class Champagne is made. It is 
very similar to the Miller's Burgundy, although leaves are not so 
downy, and the fruit, instead of being black, is of a beautiful greyish- 
pink colour. 

* Pinot Blanc (White). Synonym : White Burgundy. 
Very similar to the others, only with white fruit. There are 
several white Pinots, differing slightly from each other. The Aucarot 
is probably one of them. They are valuable sorts, and give good 
results in all the three regions ; in the warmer parts they produce 
excellent liqueur wines. 

f Pinot Blanc Chardonay. Synonyms : Morillon Blanc, 

Epineth, Beaunois, Plant Dore, Auvergnat, &c. 
This is the best of the white Pinots, and is the one from which the 
best Chablis wines of France are made. It is somewhat different 



from the other Pinots, especially in its leaves, which are less deeply 
indented, and of a more yellowish colour. It also does best in a lime- 
stone soil. 

* Pedro Ximenes. Synonyms : Pero Ximen, Pedro Jimenez, 


One of the choice Spanish white varieties which enters to a great 
extent into the composition of the best sherries, and is somewhat 
extensively cultivated in the warmer parts of Victoria, where it is 
well suited for the production of full-bodied wines. It is a good 
bearer, but is rather subject to oidium. It comes into leaf rather late, 
and ripens during the third period. It gives the best results in a 
sandy or pebbly schistose soil. It is a spreading grower of medium 
vigour, with shoots of a reddish -grey colour and a considerable number 
of laterals. Leaves rather large, distinctly five-lobed, dark-green and 
smooth above, very cottony underneath ; bunch medium size, with tender 
stem ; berries medium size, slightly oblong, soft, and thin-skinned. 

fPulsart. Synonyms: Poulsart, Blussart, Plant d'Arbois, 

A choice red sort, not cultivated to any extent in Victoria, but 
which could with advantage be planted in the first and the cooler 
part of the second region. It gives an excellent wine, especially in 
limestone soils, and is a good bearer on condition that it be pruned 

It ripens during the second period. 

The Pulsart is a vigorous grower, with short- join ted wood of 
medium thickness. Leaves small, five-lobed, with U shaped petiolar 
sinus very open; they are free from down on both sides, and of a light 
green. Bunch medium size, long, loose, and shouldered; berries 
of medium size, oval, thin-skinned, and juicy. 

* Riesling. Synonyms : Rossling, Gentil Aromatique, &c. 
A choice white variety, already extensively cultivated in Victoria. 

This is one of the best white varieties for cultivation in the first 
and the cooler part of the second region, and gives good results 
even in the third. It is the grape cultivated on the Rhine, and 
from which the celebrated Hocks are made. 

It is a good bearer, and can give crops of 500 gallons per acre, 
but does not always set well at flowering, and is subject to 


It gives best results in a granitic or schistose formation, but will 
thrive in almost any well-drained soil. 

It comes into leaf somewhat late and ripens during the second 

Long pruning is indispensable for it. If pruned short it gives 
very poor crops. 

The Riesling is a spreading grower, o.f medium vigour, with rather 
long-jointed wood of a glossy grey colour. Leaves medium, thick, 
round, five lobes (sometimes three-lobed), rather deeply indented sinus, 
rounded, teeth almost even, upper-surface dark green, very 
wrinkly, free from down, under- surf ace covered with short down, 
veins very thick and covered with stiff short hairs; bunch small 
and close; berries small, round, of a greenish colour, covered with 
bloom, with several hard black specks adhering to the skin. They 
may be recognised by the peculiar aromatic taste they leave on the 
palate. What is commonly termed Shepherd's Riesling is a variety 
of the above. It is a better bearer and has larger berries, but the 
wine is not of such high quality as that of the little Riesling. 

* Roussanne. Synonyms : White Hermitage, Bergeron, Fro- 
monteau, Plant de Seyssel. 

A choice white sort, from which are made the best White 
Hermitage wines of France. There is some difference of opinion as 
to whether our White Hermitage is the Marsanne or the Roussanne. 
The following properties of the Roussanne enable it to be said with 
almost certainty that it is our White Hermitage : 

It is very subject to oidium, whilst the Marsanne is only slightly 
so; its berries are smaller, the skin thicker, and the seeds larger than 
those of the Marsanne ; its berries become browner when exposed to 
the sun than those of the Marsanne. 

If pruned long it will yield crops of 300 gallons per acre. The 
wine made from it is of excellent quality. It is rather alcoholic, 
sound, and has a beautiful bouquet, keeps well, and improves for a 
long time. The Roussanne is best suited for the first region, but will 
also give good results in the second. It gives the best results in a 
granitic soil, but will thrive in most other sorts. 

It is more subject to oidium than most other fungoid pests. Comes 
into leaf late, and ripens towards the end of the second period. It 
is a vigorous somewhat spreading grower. Shoots rather thick, 


long-jointed, of a yellowish-grey colour, with rather small buds. Leaves 
rather large, five-lobed, teeth blunt and irregular, upper-surface of dark 
green, glossy and bulgy, under-surface downy ; bunch medium, and 
close ; berries small, round, thick-skinned, of a golden colour when 
ripe, brownish where exposed to the sun. 

* Sauvignon (Red). See Cabernet. 

f Sauvignon (White). Synonyms : Surin Fie, Blanc Fume, 

One of the choicest of all the white varieties. It, together with the 
Semillon, yields the celebrated Chateau Yquem wine, and most of the 
other renowned vineyards of Sauternes. In the first region it would 
give excellent results. It thrives in most soils, but gives the best 
results in a well-drained friable pebbly clay soil. 

The Sauvignon is hardy, little subject to fungus diseases, but is a 
poor bearer. 

It is a vigorous spreading grower, with medium-size yellowish-brown 
wood. Leaves small, thick, three-lobed, broader than long, teeth 
short, blunt, and uneven, upper-surface smooth, under-surface downy; 
bunch small and close; berries medium size, slightly oval, trans- 
parent, thin-skinned when ripe, of a delicious flavour. 

Semillon. Synonyms: Colombier, Goulu Blanc, Chevrier, 

and sometimes, erroneously, Malaga. 

This is another " Sauternes " variety, the wine made from it is 
similar to that of the Sauvignon in most respects, although not quite 
so perfumed. It is a better bearer than the Sauvignon, which it re- 
sembles to some extent, differing from it by the colour of the wood, 
which is dark-brown (mahogany). Leaves large, three or five-lobed; 
bunch large, rather close; berries large, almost round, of a golden colour, 
with thin skin. 

* Shiraz. Synonyms : Red Hermitage, Schiras, Sirac, Syra, 

Sirrah, Serine, Candive. 

An excellent red variety, perhaps more extensively cultivated than 
any other in Victoria. 

It forms the base of the celebrated Hermitage vineyards of France, 
where it was first planted by a monk, who, returning from Shiraz, in 
Persia, brought the cuttings with him. So goes the story, and it 
explains the two most common names by which it is known. 


It does best in a granitic soil, but will grow in almost any that is fit 
for viticulture. It is a good bearer and yields crops of as much as 
700 gallons if pruned long. It gives good results if pruned short. 

The wine made from it possesses many excellent qualities, it is 
perhaps rather strong when grown it the third region, and is better 
when grown in either the first or second. 

Although liable to oidium, it resists mildew (peronospora), and does 
not suffer much from anthracnosis. 

It comes into leaf early, and ripens during the second period. 

The Shiraz is a vigorous spreading grower. Shoots thick, long- 
jointed, of a characteristic grey colour ; leaves, rather large, five-lobed, 
but not deeply divided, teeth blunt and even, upper-surface of a fine, 
bright, but dark-green, not glossy, with a few traces of flaky down ; 
the colour is so characteristic that a block of this kind may easily be 
recognised at a distance ; under-surface, cottony ; bunch rather 
large, long, conical, sometimes rather loose ; berries below the 
average size, oblong, black, covered with bloom, thin-skinned, and 

* Sultana. Synonyms : Kechmish, Sultanieh, Conforogo. 
This is the seedless grape from which the well-known Sultana 

raisins are made. It is also a good table grape, and produces a good 
light white wine. It should be pruned long. 

* Sweet Water. Synonyms : List an, (?) White Nice. (?) 
Like the Chasselas, this sort is considered to be only of use as a 

table variety, but this is not the case in the second and third regions. 
Some excellent white wines are made from this grape, which is 
superior to Gouais in these conditions. It may be easily dis- 
tinguished by its thick, dark-green, five-lobed leaves; the lower 
indentations of which are the deepest. The leaves are smooth and 
glossy above and downy beneath. Bunches large, and berries medium >v 
size, round. Very agreeable to eat. /.,,. \ 

f Tinto. Synonyms : Teinturier, Gros Noir Oporto, Tinto \ 

Francisca, Rome Noir, &c. 

The Tinto is one of the few grapes which have red juice. In 
most other red grapes the colouring matter is contained in the skin, 
but the juice of the Tinto is of a deep red colour as well. The wine 
made from it is of a remarkable colour. This is, in fact, its 


quality; in other respects it is flat, and does not keep weL. It is 
neither a vigorous grower nor a good bearer, but may, however, be 
useful in a bad year, and in a cold district, to increase the colour of 
other wines, and for this reason a few acres of it may be added to 
vineyards in cooler parts of the first region if the soil is not colour- 

It may be described as follows : Plant not vigorous, resembling 
the Pinots ; leaves, five-lobed, and deeply indented, the two lower 
indentations being the deepest, they are slightly cottony on both 
sides, but more so on the under one; at vintage-time they can easily 
be recognised by their magnificent red colour ; bunch small, close ; 
berries, small, round, and with crimson juice. 

* Tokay. 

It is difficult to say what grape our Tokay really is ; it does not 
seem to be identical with the Furmint, which is the chief grape grown 
in the celebrated Tokay vineyards of Hungary ; nor does it answer 
to the description of the Balafant, another Hungarian sort. It is, how- 
ever, a very good grape and gives abundant crops of excellent wine. It 
generally sets well at blossoming, and although very subject to oidium, 
is not attacked by the anthracnosis. The fruit ripens pretty early, 
and is very liable to rot if the vintage be a wet one. The wine does 
not ferment regularly as a rule, and requires careful treatment when 
young, still it may be recommended as a very good variety for the 
first and second regions, for which, perhaps, it is too strong by itself. 
It cannot be recommended for the third. The Tokay is a rather 
vigorous erect grower, with short-jointed shoots of a pale reddish- 
yellow. Leaves large, three-lobed, longer than broad, with deep, 
sharp, and uneven teeth, upper-surface uneven, of a yellowish-green, 
without down, under-surface rather downy ; bunches above medium 
size, shouldered ; berries medium, round, thin-skinned. The Tokay 
will give good crops when pruned short, but will do better with long 


This is another of the red varieties largely cultivated in the 
Bordeaux district for the production of clarets. The wine made 
from it is very good, although rather hard at first. In this 
respect it resembles the Cabernet, although it is inferior to it in 
bouquet. It is also a better bearer than it. It is, as a rule, cultivated 


in Bordeaux in the rich soils, termed palus, along the river. If 
injured by frost, new shoots often come out at the base of those 

The leaves are medium sized, longer than broad, when young 
covered with a characteristic silvery white down, when full-grown 
three or five-lobed, teeth uneven, indentations rather open and not 
very deep upper surface smooth, uneven, of a paler green 
than Cabernet, under side downy ; bunch somewhat similar to 
Cabernet but more shouldered and smaller; berries rather small, 
round, with thick skin, and large seeds ; it ripens in the third period. 

* Verdeilho. Synonym : Gouveio. 

The Verdeilho is the principal white variety grown in Madeira, 
where an excellent wine is made from it. It is best suited for 
making a wine of Madeira type in the second and third regions of 
the colony. It also gives good results in the cool regions in 
situations where it ripens properly, but it is better suited for the 

May be described as follows : Plant moderately vigorous, shoo.ts 
slender, rather closely knotted, and of a reddish tint. Leaves not very 
large, almost entire, upper side dark-green, smooth and rather 
shiny, under surface slightly downy, teeth even, short, and blunt ; 
bunch medium size, rather close ; berries medium size, oval, even, 
regular, thick skin. 

This variety is very subject to oidium ; should be pruned long. 

* Zante (Currant). Synonym : Passolina. 

Is the grape from which the currant of commerce is made. It is said 
by some to be identical with the Corinth, but this does not appear to be 
the case. It is a vigroous grower and must be pruned very long. It gives 
the best crops on high, overhead trellises, and does not come into full 
bearing for seven or eight years under ordinary circumstances. Its leaves 
are easily recognised, they are large, five-lobed, and with large (very), 
even, rather sharp teeth on the margin, different to most vines many 
of the leaves on a plant have seven instead of five principal veins, which 
separate from the juncture with the petiole; the upper-surface is dark- 
green with a few flakes of cotton, especially on the veins, whilst the 
under-surface is downy and of a whitish colour; bunches large; berries 
very small and seedless. There are three sorts, the fruit of each are 
respectively white, red, and black. 

E 2 


Zinfandel. Synonym : Zierfahnder Bother. 

An Austrian red variety much cultivated in the United 1 States. 
The wine made from it is light and agreeable. 

It is a heavy bearer and requires short pruning. It is not, as yet, 
cultivated in Victoria. 


We saw that the European vines all belong to one species 
(Vitis Vinifera). The American ones may be resolved into several 
distinct species, each of which in turn comprises a greater or lesser 
number of varieties. Many of these, being of no practical interest, 
need not be described. We shall confine ourselves to such as have 
been proved to be worth propagating, or which, being frequently met 
with, deserve mention. 

The chief character of the American vines, and the one which has 
caused them to come into so much favour in Europe of late years, is 
the remarkable resistance they oppose to the attacks of the phyl- 
loxera. With a few exceptions, they can all thrive with this terrible 
insect living on them. Their roots are, as we have seen, tougher 
than those of the European vines. The injuries caused by them heal 
quickly, and are insignificant compared with the destruction of the 
more succulent roots of European sorts brought about by the bite of 
the insect destruction which invariably results in the death of the 
plant after a more or less considerable period of time, usually about 
three years. 

Not only are the American sorts able to resist, but they are less 
exposed to the ravages of the phylloxera, which lives chiefly on 
their leaves, whilst, with European sorts, the roots are the usual 
habitat of the insect. Even in infested vineyards (planted with 
European sorts) it is exceedingly uncommon to find insects on the 

The American vines are not phylloxera-proof, in the sense that the 
phylloxera is never to be found on them. They are phylloxera- 
resistant, as the insect can and does live on them without causing 
any considerable injury. These vines having existed for many 
centuries with the phylloxera living on them, have, by natural selec- 
tion, become able to resist their ravages. The phylloxera and the 
American vines have, so to speak, been Brought up together in 


nature's nursery. The Vitis Vinifera never having had to cope with 
this natural enemy, and being unprepared by nature to resist it, falls 
an easy prey to its ravages. 

It must not be thought that the phylloxera and the American vines are 
indissolubly linked together. Once free from the insect and transported 
to a clean district they will remain so. Under such circumstances it 
would be just as impossible for the phylloxera to suddenly appear on 
them without having been brought from elsewhere as it would for it to 
suddenly come into existence on a European vine ( Vitis Vinifera). 
Although it has been conclusively proved that they are to blame for 
the presence of the pest in Europe (where they were imported in the 
shape of rooted vines, no precautions having been taken, since the 
very existence of the pest was then unknown), the American sorts 
may with perfect safety be introduced into any clean district, provided 
they are absolutely free from all traces of the insect. Too much 
caution cannot be observed in their introduction into this colony; 
only seeds or cuttings from vines which have been growing in a clean 
district side by side with European vines for some years, without 
detrimental effect upon the latter, should be tolerated for this purpose. 
It must be remembered that a single insect might suffice to start an 
invasion, which it would be most difficult, if not impossible, to check. 
Many American varieties have been introduced into Victoria; they 
are at the present moment growing perfectly free from this dreaded 
insect, and could be reproduced with perfect confidence. 

With few exceptions, this immunity from phylloxera is the only 
thing to recommend their cultivation, although in some cases, if 
employed as stocks, they improve the yield of some European sorts 
grafted on them. They have many faults and are inferior in almost 
every respect to the European sorts. With the exception of the 
varieties of Vitis ^Estivalis, their fruit possesses a peculiar taste, 
reminding of black currants, termed in America " Foxy taste," or 
they are acrid or otherwise unfit for wine-making purposes. Many 
of them are but poor bearers, and in addition to this they suffer more 
than the others from unsuitable descriptions of soil, being liable to 
chlorosis, and are often very difficult to propagate by cuttings. 

Although we shall describe such American sorts as are of interest 
in detail, it may be of service to vine-growers to have some simple 
rule by which they may distinguish between an American sort and a 
Vitis Vinifera. 


The following rule is given by L. Fortes and F. Ruyssen, and will 
be found to hold good in the majority of cases, although some 
American sorts are very similar to a Vitis Vinifera, and vice versd. 
Fig. 7 represents a typical leaf of Vitis Vinifera, and Fig. 8 one of 
Vitis Labrusca (an American species), which may to some extent 
serve as a type for them all.* 

FIG. 7. 

FIG. 8. 

The most characteristic difference between the two and the only 
one presenting any degree of fixity is in the petiolar sinus or main 
indentation, where the petiole or leaf stalk joins the limb or flat part 
of the leaf. In the Vitis Vinifera the edges, after separating at 
first, tend to join again higher up, giving the opening the form of a 
U which has been closed in at the top ; in the Vitis Labrusca, on 
the other hand, it is more similar to a V which has been widened 
above so that the extremities point outward. The portion of the 
leaf above the insertion of the petiole is far more considerable in the 
Vitis Vinifera than in the Vitis Labrusca, or the insertion of the 
petiole is much nearer the centre of the leaf in the former 
variety. The texture of the leaves presents a somewhat charac- 
teristic difference. Those of the American sorts appear to be more 
or less flabby, whilst the leaves of Vitis Vinifera have a more crisp 

* It must be borne in mind that the general form of the leaf is not always 
as in the cuts; for example, V. Vinifera frequently has three-lobed and V. 
Labrusca five-lobed leaves. The two examples given are the most common forms 
of each species. 


The only American species of interest are the following : V. 
jEstivalis, V. Arizonica, V. Berlandieri, V. Californica, V. Candi- 
cans, V. Cinerea, V. Cordifolia, V. Labrusca, V. Riparia, V. 
Rotundifolia, and Vitis Rupestris ; in addition to these there are 
many others of purely botanical interest. 


The summer grape of North America. This is the only species 
from which are derived direct producers, that is varieties yielding 
grapes capable of being made into wine, similar to that of V. 
Vinifera. Almost all the sorts belonging to the other species are only 
used as grafting stocks. 

The grapes of the V. ^Estivalis, however, are more similar to those 
of V. Vinifera, being free from foxy or other foreign taste. Un- 
fortunately most of the varieties derived from it are poor bearers. 

The species, as a whole, may be described as follows : 
Plant of medium vigour, with long thick climbing shoots, usually 
dark and covered with bloom ; tendrils large, discontinuous ; buds 
and young leaves of a brilliant carmine ; leaves at first covered on 
both sides with down, but when full grown without down on the 
upper side ; ordinarily lobed, but sometimes almost entire ; bunch 
variable ; berries small, thin-skinned, covered with bloom. This 
species is divided into a northern and southern group. The former 
have leaves almost entire and rusty-coloured down on the veins. All 
the varieties belonging to this species resist the phylloxera. 

The chief " cepages " are as follows : 

Cunningham. Synonym : Long. 

A pink variety, somewhat extensively cultivated in France, 
although a poor bearer. It ripens very late and is to be preferred 
for making white wine on account of the very light colour of that 
fermented with the skins. 

It is difficult to propagate by cuttings, and is not a good stock to 
graft on. 

The leaves are large, three-lobed, or almost entire, smooth and 
dark-green above, downy beneath. 


Cynthiana. Synonyms : Norton's Virginia, Red River, 


A good red variety, producing a very good wine, but being a rather 
poor bearer, and requiring a rich soil. 

It requires long pruning, resists fungus diseases very well, but 
does not strike well from cuttings. 

t Devereux. Synonyms : Black July, Lincoln, Thurmond, 
Hart, Tuley, McLean, sometimes erroneously termed Lenoir. 
A good red-wine grape. It is hardy, vigorous, and will grow in 
most soils, but is only a poor bearer. 

Some authors consider it to be a hybrid between V. jffistivalis and 
V. Vinifera. The leaves are of medium size, three-lobed, with 
obtuse lobes not deeply separated ; upper-surface dark-green, glossy, 
very uneven, with a few silky hairs ; under-surface pale-green, with 
numerous hairs on the veins, 

t Elsinburgh. Synonyms : Missouri Birdseye, Smarts. 
A red grape belonging to the northern group, producing a good 
wine, but not extensively cultivated on account of its very small 

Herbemont. Synonyms : Warren, Warrenton, NeiVs Grape, 

Herbemont's Madeira. 

A good red grape, belonging to the southern group, perhaps one 
of the best American direct producers. It is a fair bearer; its wine 
is of good quality, although light in colour. It does not come into full 
bearing till rather late, and is liable to chlorosis unless planted in 
well-drained soils of a dark colour. It is a vigorous spreading 
grower, with wood of a pale-pink colour; leaves large, three, five, 
and rarely seven lobed, lightish-green above, pale-green below ; two 
series of blunt teeth; bunch rather small, close; berries small, round, 
thin-skinned, dark -red or black, covered with bloom. 

f Jacquez. Synonyms : Lenoir, Jack, Cigar, Box Grape, 

McCandless, Black Spanish, Longworttfs Ohio, 
A red grape, belonging to the southern group, perhaps the best of 
all the American direct producers; also suitable as a resistant stock 
to graft on, although inferior in this respect to certain varieties of V. 
Riparia and V. Rupestris. 


It is a good bearer, and yields a wine of magnificent colour, similar 
to that made from Mataro, Carignane, &c., although slightly inferior 
to them, and of a bluish tint if the grapes are over ripe. 

It is a hardy variety, and thrives in most soils, although it is, 
unfortunately, very liable to fungus diseases, especially anthracnosis 
and mildew. 

It is a vigorous semi-erect grower, with brownish-purple wood, 
even when green; leaves longer than broad, large, usually five-lobed, 
bright green, and smooth above, paler beneath, and with some silky 
down; bunch large, long, loose; berries rather small, round, purplish- 
black, covered with bloom, hard, with tough skin and red juice. 

Pauline. Synonyms : Burgundy of Georgia, Red Lenoir. 

A pink variety of little value, being a poor bearer and very subject 
to a peculiar form of anthracnosis, termed in French " Anthracnose 


A hardy vine, thoroughly phylloxera-resistant, which, although 
not used as yet, would give very good results as a stock to graft 
European varieties on. It does not grow readily from cuttings. 

It is a medium vigorous spreading grower, with smooth adherent 
bark. Leaves small, usually heart shaped, upper- surface dark- 
green and shiny, under-surface paler and with stiff hairs on the 
veins; berries small, of agreeable taste; seeds small. 

It is similar to the V. Californica and V. Cordifolia. No cultivated 
yarieties of it are known as yet. 

Synonyms: Surret Mountain, Little Sweet Mountain. 

This species deserves mention as it is the one recommended by 
Pierre Viala as a stock to graft Vinifera 'on in the chalky soils of the 
Department des Charentes, where the other American sorts will not 
grow. Its chief drawback is the difficulty with which it is propa- 
gated by cuttings. 

It is a vigorous spreading grower, with long slender shoots of 
polygonal section towards the extremities. Leaves small, usually 
heart shaped, glossy above, under-surface either smooth or covered 


with grey down; bunches small and close; berries small, round, 
black, without foreign taste. 

It is not used as a direct producer. 


Deserves mention as it is held in some esteem in America. It is 
a vigorous grower, with slender, ramified, slightly downy shoots. 
Leaves small, usually entire, with blunt teeth, upper-surface glossy, 
under-surface paler, with tufts of hairs on the veins; small black 
berries. This species is not esteemed in France, where it is said to 
be subject to chlorosis, and fungus diseases. It resists phylloxera, 
but its very small yield unfits it or a direct producer. It is a 
good stock to graft on, but is difficult to propagate by cuttings. 


Commonly termed the Mustang grape in America. 

Like many others, it would form an excellent stock for grafting, as 
it is very vigorous and phylloxera-resistant, but can only be propa- 
gated with difficulty from cuttings. The fruit is so acid as to render 
it unfit for a direct producer. It is a heavy bearer. 

It is a most vigorous grower, with medium, long-jointed shoots; 
leaves rather small, either heart-shaped or lobate, upper- surface 
bright green and smooth, under-surface covered with a very close 
white down; bunches small, but very numerous; berries large, black, 
and of an acrid taste; seeds large. 


This species seems to be allied to Vitis &stivalis and V. Ber- 
landieri. Like the latter, it thrives in chalky soils, but is also 
difficult to propagate. 

It is a vigorous spreading grower, with small leaves, either entire 
or subdivided, of a whitish-green above and below, the veins on the 
under side are hairy; bunch small; berries very small, black, without 
bloom, acid, but without foxy taste. 

Called in America Winter Grape, Frost Grape, or Chicken 


It is similar to the last in most respects, such as its adaptability to 
chalky soils and the difficulty with which it can be propagated. 


Its leaves are somewhat similar to those of V. Riparia, although 
they differ from it by opening out flat. The leaves of V. Riparia 
remain folded for some time after first coming out. The acid taste 
of its grapes renders it unfit for a direct producer. 


This species, usually termed in America Fox Grape, or Northern 
Fox Grape, is perhaps the one which has been submitted to cultural 
methods with the object of improving the fruit for the greatest 
number of years, and for this reason there are many varieties derived 
from it, few of which, however, are considered to be f practical use 
from a European stand-point. In the first place they are not all, 
strictly speaking, phylloxera proof. Although they resist it far 
better than the V. Vinifera varieties, many of them suffer from the 
attacks of the insect, some even succumbing te it after a few years. 
In addition to this the fruit has a strong foxy taste, rendering these 
vines unsuitable for cultivation as direct producers, and many of 
them are subject to chlorosis if the soil be light in colour and not 
properly drained. We must describe a few varieties on account of 
the frequency with which one meets with them in gardens, &'c. 
One r two of them possess the above-named defects in so small a 
degree that they may be considered as being of value. 

The general characteristics of the species are as follows : 
Spreading growers of medium vigour, with long thick shoots, 
sometimes hairy near the knots in the green state. The tendrils are 
continuous, that is, there is a tendril (or bunch) opposite to every 
leaf. This is the principal characteristic of the species, and dis- 
tinguishes it from all others, which have discontinuous tendrils. 
Leaves rather three than five lobed, upper-surface of a dull dark- 
green colour, under-surface covered with thick close down, usually 
white, brownish on the veins ; bunch rather large ; berries large, 
either round or oval, with pulpy flesh and foxy taste ; skin thick ; 
seeds large. As a rule varieties belonging to this species ripen early. 

The following are some of the varieties derived from this species : 

t Adironda. 

An early black grape of little value. 

t Anna. 

A hardy white sort, probably a seedling of Catawba, not of much 


t Canby's August. Synonyms : York's Madeira, Black Ger- 
man, Hyde's Eliza, Monteith. 

Canby's August is usually considered to be a hybrid, but it is more 
closely connected with V. Labrusca than any other species. 

It resists the phylloxera, and, as it is very hardy and capable of 
doing well in almost any soil, it forms an excellent stock to graft on, 
although, perhaps, inferior to V. Rupestris and some varieties of V. 
Riparia. It cannot be employed as a direct producer on account of 
the very foxy taste of its fruit and its being a poor bearer. 

f Catawba. Synonyms : Red Muncy, Catawba, Tokay, 


A purple variety, considered to be very good for wine-making 
purposes in America, as it is freer from foxy taste than most V. 
Labrusca varieties. A kind of champagne, known as Sparkling 
Catawba is made from it in America. It is almost adapted for 
cultivation as a direct producer, although a rather poor bearer. It 
is of no value as a stock, as it cannot be said with certainty to be 


This variety is much esteemed in the eastern states of America, 
where the foxy taste is not so much disliked as in France or the 
western states. It is a good bearer, and is phylloxera-resistant, but 
the fruit has a foxy taste. It will not thrive in very warm dry 
districts, nor in any but dark well-drained soils, being very subject 
to chlorosis. 

t Diana. 

A rather good white variety. 

f Isabella. Synonyms : Woodward, Paynes Early, Samboton. 

This is, perhaps, the best known American sort in Australia. It 

is a hardy black grape, and a rather good bearer, but is not 

phylloxera-resistant, and its fruit has a marked foxy taste, so it is not 

to be recommended. 

f Israella. 
Very similar to Isabella, of which it is probably a seedling. 

t Ives* Seedling. Synonyms : Ives, Ives' Madeira, Kittredge. 

A vigorous prolific black variety, easily recognised by its very 

handsome leaves, dark-green above, white beneath. It is of little 


value as a grafting stock, and cannot be used as a direct producer on 
account of the taste of its fruit. 

t Logan. 

A prolific black variety. 

t Maxatawney. 

A white sort, rather suited for table purposes. 

t Martha. 

A white sort, with less foxy taste than many of the others. 

t Miles: 
An early black grape, somewhat free from foxy taste. 

t Perkins. 
A pale lilac early grape, with very pronounced foxy taste. 

t Rebecca. 

A beautiful white grape, but of little value. 

t Tokaylon. Synonyms : Wyman, Spofford Seedling. 

A robust, vigorous, rather late, black variety, almost free from 
foxy taste. 


The Sand or River grape of the Americans. 

The varieties derived from V. Riparia are of great value as stocks 
to graft on, being thoroughly phylloxera-proof, and thriving in most 
sorts of soils. They cannot be employed as direct producers on 
account of the flavour of their fruit, which is rather acrid than foxy. 
Some of them only bear male flowers, and are necessarily sterile. 

The following are the main characteristics of the species : Very 
spreading slender grower, but capable of covering large surfaces; 
long- jointed wood; leaves at first folded along the midrib, but after 
opening out flat, they are usually heart-shaped or three-lobed, with 
sharp teeth, upper surface smooth, and often very glossy, under- 
surface duller in colour, smooth, or with a few hairs on the veins 
(when the leaves first come out they are sometimes very downy); 
bunch usually small; berries small, with a less pronounced foxy taste 
than those of V. Labrusca; seeds small. The sorts derived from V. 
Riparia come into leaf, blossom, and ripen very early. 

f Clinton. Synonym : Worthington. 

This red variety is extensively grown in America as a direct pro- 
ducer, as it is a fair bearer, and its wine is of good colour and body. 


It cannot, however, be recommended as such, as its fruit has the 
foxy taste. It is an excellent stock in good, free soils, and grows 
easily from cuttings. The leaves have some hairs on the under side 
of the veins. 

Solonis. Synonyms : Cordifolia Solonis, Long's Arkansas, 
La Souys. 

Some authors consider this sort to be rather a V. Cordifolia than a 
V. Riparia. It is a very constant type, so much so that it can be 
reproduced by seed without much variation. 

It resists phylloxera in a remarkable manner, and does well in 
almost any soil, for which reasons it is probably the best stock for 
grafting purposes Ithough it is of no value as a direct producer. 

The young leaves are downy, but when full-grown smooth on both 
sides, with the exception of a few hairs on the under side of the 

t Taylor. Synonyms : Bullet, Taylor's Bullit. 
A white grape, in other respects similar to the Clinton. It is a 
good stock for grafting on, although inferior to the Solonis and Wild 
Riparias. It is a thick stock, and therefore most suitable for 
vigorous growing varieties. It is without value as a direct pro- 
ducer on account of its small yield, although the fruit is almost free 
from foxy taste. 

t Wild Riparia. 

There are several Wild Riparias cultivated somewhat extensively 
in France as stocks. They are excellent for this purpose, being very 
hardy and absolutely phylloxera-resistant. They ought to be grafted 
very young, as the graft takes better under these conditions. 

Synonym : Vitis Vulpina. Known in America by the names of 

Muscadine, Bullace, and Bullet Grape. 

This species deserves mention, as it differs greatly from all the 
foregoing kinds. 

It can be readily distinguished by its bark, which, instead of being 
like that of the vines we are accustomed to see, is smooth, and 
covered with small lenticels, and, in a general way, similar to that of 
a mulberry. 


The leaves are small, entire, heart-shaped, and glossy on both 
sides. Bunches very small, made up of a very few large berries, with 
very large seeds. The fruit do not ripen simultaneously, as is the 
case with other vines, but successively, and fall off as soon as ripe. 
They are very poor in sugar, and can only produce a drinkable 
wine in a hot climate, whore this species might be cultivated with 
advantage, as it is an exceedingly vigorous grower, one vine being 
capable of covering over an acre of ground. Although phylloxera- 
resistant, they do not make good stocks, on account of the difficulty 
with which European sorts can be grafted on them. 

The following are the best known varieties : 

f Flowers. Synonym : Black Muscadine. 

A late variety, esteemed in Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina, 
where it is said to yield a good red wine. 

t Scuppernong. Synonyms : Yellow Muscadine. White 

Muscadine. Bullace. Roanoke. 

A very hardy white sort, from which wine is made in the Southern 
States of North America. 

t Thomas. 

A reddish grape similar to the others in most respects. 


This species is also termed Rock Grape and Sugar Grape in America. 
No cultivated varieties have, as yet, been derived from it. It is a 
a very poor bearer, most of the flowers being sterile, and is therefore 
unsuitable as a direct producer. It is, on the other hand, an excellent 
stock for grafting European sorts on, as it is thoroughly phylloxera- 
resistant, and very hardy, doing well in almost any but chalky soils. 


There are, as might be expected, many hybrids between the 
different species, some of which deserve mention ; these are 

t Allen's Hybrid. 

Chasselas x Isabella. A good early white table grape, but not 

t Alvey. Synonym : Hagar. 

This is a V. Vinifera x V. jEstivalis hybrid. A good red variety, 
producing a good wine. It is phylloxera-resistant, but the fruit sets 


very badly, and it is subject to what is termed in French " anthracnose 

t Delaware. 

Is a V. Vinifera x V. Labrusca.. A white grape of little value, 
although it seems to resist the phylloxera. 


A hybrid of Taylor X Sphinx. A white or pink phylloxera- 
resistant variety. It is a good bearer, and although its fruit has a 
foxy taste, it seems to yield upon distillation an excellent brandy. 

t Goethe. 

Is a hybrid between V. Vinifera and V. Labrusca. It is a good 
white grape, but a poor bearer, and does not seem to be phylloxera- 

t Lindley. 

A brick-red table grape derived from V. Vinifera x V. Labrusca x 
V. Riparia. 

t Salem. 

A V. Labrusca X V. Vinifera (Bl. Hamburg). A variety of little 

Vialla. Synonym : Clinton- Vialla. 

One of the most valuable hybrids as a stock to graft on, but useless 
as a direct producer, on account of the foxy taste of its fruit and the 
small number of flowers which set. It is a V. Riparia x V. Labrusca. 

t Wilder. 

A V. Vinifera x V. Labrusca x V. Riparia, said to be a good 
purple table grape. 


This chapter would not be complete without a brief mention of 
some of our indigenous Australian varieties. Although at present 
they are considered as being without value, and have never been 
cultivated with a view of improving the fruit, it is quite possible 
that something might be done in this direction. 

They differ from vines one is accustomed to see in being 
evergreen, with bark similar to that of V. Rotundifolia, and oblong 
serrated leaves, comparable to those of the laurel or camellia. The 
flowers are more similar to those of the Ampelopsis or Virginia 


creeper than a vitis. The petals open above, and in appearance are 
similar to Fig. 4. 

The following species are described as follows by Baron von 
Mueller in his work " Select Extra Tropical Plants" : 

Vitis Acetosa. 

"Carpentaria and Arnheim's land. Stems rather herbaceous than 
shrubby ; erect. The whole plant is pervaded with acidity, thus 
the foliage proved valuable in cases of scurvy. The berries are edible, 
and very white, purple, and black. This species, if planted in countries 
with a mild temperate clime, would probably spring afresh from the 
roots annually. Mr. Alfred Giles made from this grape some wine 
of fair quality, reminding of claret." 

Vitis Baudiniana (F. v. Mueller). Synonyms : Cissus 

Antarctica, Vitis Antarctica. 

" East Australia. With V. Hypoglauca, the most southern of all 
species of grapes, none extending to New Zealand. It is evergreen, 
and a vigorous plant for bowers, but suffers even from slight frosts. 
The berries are freely produced and edible, though not large." 

Vitis Hypoglauca (F. v. Mueller). 

" East Australia, as far south as Gippsland. An evergreen climber 
of enormous length, forming a very stout stem in age. The black 
berries attain the size of small cherries. This species, also, may 
perhaps be vastly changed in its fruit by continued culture ; bears slight 
frost, but it is best in cool climes to keep seedlings for two or three 
years under shelter, so that sufficient increment and induration of the 
woody stem takes place for its resisting subsequently some frost." 

Vitis Opaca (F. v. Mueller). Synonym : Cissus Opaca or 
Burdekin Vine. 

A Queensland species, which is, like the others, a hardy evergreen 


In addition to these there are several Asiatic and African species, 
which, however, need not be described here. 




The selection of a suitable site for a vineyard is of the greatest 
importance, and cannot receive too serious consideration at the \ 
hands of the intending planter. 

When it is remembered that the important factors climate, 
aspect, soil, &c. depend upon the site chosen, the importance of 
a judicious choice becomes manifest. 

When selecting a site the main thing the future vinegrower must 
keep in view is the kind of wine he wishes to make. Choice or 
abundant, light or strong, dry or sweet, red or white, all depends 
upon these points, and they should receive the fullest consideration, 
more especially from any one who has not as yet purchased his land, 
but wishes to know which will be the most profitable district for 
him to settle in. It is a delicate matter to say that any district is 
best situated for this purpose, such a course would expose one to much 
unfavorable criticism from residents of all the other districts, who 
might consider that they were slighted and their land depreciated. 

We shall briefly enumerate the different advantages of such and 
such a climate and soil, and leave it to the intending planter to 
choose between them. 

Most wine-growing districts of Victoria, and a good many districts 
where no vines have as yet been planted, have some distinct advantage 
to recommend them, such as freedom from excessive moisture, and 
consequent immunity from fungus pests ; prolificacy of the vine in 
them ; excellent quality of the wine ; freedom from frosts ; suitability 
to such and such a variety. 

It would be well to here warn the intending planter against 
devoting himself to the production of abundant crops of small value 
instead of smaller yield of superior wine. It pays a man better to 
obtain 100 gallons per acre of wine for which he can obtain 4s per 
gallon than 400 gallons per acre of wine only worth Is. per gallon. 


The absolute return per acre will be the same in both cases, but the 
smaller yield, entailing less expense in gathering, vintaging, and 
casks, leaves a larger margin for profit. 

At present the production of Victorian wine is so limited that it 
has not come to be looked upon as a regular article of commerce in 
the markets of Europe. The demand for it is small, and, consequently, 
in the absence of competition, wines in reality of very dissimilar 
values often sell for -the same price. With the largely-increased 
production, which is sure to result from the extensive planting of the 
last year or two, a re-arrangement of prices is bound to come, tending 
to raise the price of superior wines and lower that of wines of 
ordinary quality. 

The successful wine-grower of the future will be the one who 
devotes himself to the production of high-class wines. At present it 
may be more remunerative to produce larger quantities of an inferior 
article, but a time will come when the producer who sacrifices quality 
to quantity will find difficulty in getting rid of his wine, whilst for a 
superior article there will always be a demand. 

The strength of the wine to be produced is the next point requiring 
consideration. In Europe strong wines are going out of fashion 
every day and giving place to lighter ones ; people preferring a claret 
of which they can drink a bottle without inconvenience to a strong 
wine of a port or sherry type, which does not quench the thirst, and 
of which only a couple of glasses may be taken with impunity. In 
Australia the taste for strong wines still continues, although lighter 
ones are coming more into favour every day. 

A light wine is the one for which there is, and always will be, the 
greatest demand. It is destined to be the universal drink for all 
classes, being more beneficial, cheering, and invigorating than any 
other. The great bulk of strong wines now produced will be devoted 
chiefly to blending purposes, and will not probably command a high 
price in the near future, with the exception of a limited number of 
high-class strong wines, which will always command good prices as 
liqueur wines or ports. 

Sweet wines may be included in the same category as strong wines. 
A wine cannot remain sweet unless it is sufficiently rich in alcohol to 
prevent the fermentation of the unchanged sugar. Such wines, often 
termed ladies' wines, liqueur, or fruity wines, are perhaps more sought 

p 2 


after in the colonial market than dry, strong wines. They are often 
of excellent quality when made in certain privileged situations, but 
their production ought not to be encouraged. 

Red wines are in greater demand than white, although wines of 
the type of Chablis or Hock meet wiih a ready sale. In short the 
wine the future grower will find the most profitable to make is a dry 
red wine the lighter the better. As for producing what is commonly 
called a claret, it will not do to imitate what one is in the habit of 
tasting as such. It must be remembered that only a small proportion 
of what comes out here as French wine was ever grown in France at 
all. Wines of a delicate character, liable to be mistaken by true 
connoisseurs for the celebrated wines of France and Germany, such as 
Bordeaux, Burgundies, Hocks, &c., can only be produced in the first 
or cool region of the colony. The second region is capable of pro- 
ducing excellent wines of a somewhat stronger description, but which 
are still light wines, provided proper care be observed in the selec- 
tion of sorts. Whilst the third is best adapted for the production of 
good commercial or blending wines, but in greater abundance, as well 
as some high-class strong wines. In France it is only the central 
portions which produce Clarets, Burgundies, and other light wines ; 
no wines in the south of France or any part of Spain, Portugal, 
or Italy are similar to a first-class Bordeaux. It is a surprising thing 
that the first region of Victoria, which is so very favorably situated 
for the production of light wines, and in which it is not impossible 
that some privileged spots may be found capable of producing wines 
equal to the celebrated Chateau Latour, Margaux,' and Lafitte of 
Bordeaux, has been so greatly neglected by persons devoting them- 
selves to viticulture. The greater part of north-eastern Gippsland 
comes within this region, yet there are not twenty acres of this vast 
district planted with vines. 

This is a word of advice en passant to any one who has not as yet 
decided in which district to plant. The greater number of persons 
have already purchased the land, and wish to know if it be suitable 
for viticulture or not. It is unnecessary to say that the most reliable 
information in this direction will be given by the vine itself, and 
intending planters cannot do better than study the established vine- 
yards in the district, and ascertain from the owners the advantages or 
disadvantages they labour under. 


The principal points respecting which information should be 
sought in either of the three regions are : 

1st. Suitability of the soil, both from a physical and a chemical 
point of view, as already set forth (page 23). 

2nd. Suitable rainfall. In an approximate manner it may be said 
that localities with an annual rainfall of under 10, or over 40 inches, 
are unfavorable for vine-growing purposes. If recourse can be had to 
irrigation, of course vines can be profitably cultivated in districts 
where the rainfall is even less than 10 inches. A good deal depends 
upon the distribution oftthis water. If it be spread evenly over all 
the months of the year a lesser rainfall will be necessary than would 
otherwise be the case. The following table, giving the annual rain- 
fall of some of the best known wine districts of France, may be of 
interest to intending planters : 

Champagne ... ... ... 18'7l 

Burgundy ... ... ... 29'35 

Beaujolais ... ... ... 37'27 

Bordeaux ... ... ... 23'09 

Bas Languedoc ... ... ... 25'65 

Avignon ... ... ... 23'42 

Aries ... ... ... ... 16-67 

Marseille ... ... ... 20'17 

Champagne is situated in the north of France ; Burgundy, Beaujolais, 
and Bordeaux in the central portion ; whilst the Bas Languedoc, 
Avignon, Aries, and Marseille are in the south. It will be seen that 
Victoria and France are very similarly situated as regards rainfall. 

3rd. Liability to late spring frosts occurring after the vines have 
come into leaf. 

4th. Liability to violent winds occurring in the very early summer, 
at which time the shoots, being neither long enough to be tied up 
nor strong enough to resist the action of the wind, sustain considerable 

5th. Frequency of injurious hailstorms. These are of very local 
occurrence, and concern the site of the vineyard itself rather than a 
whole district, especially in hilly country ; they are often confined to 
certain ranges and valleys. It is common to observe two places only 
a mile or so apart, one of which is devastated by hail nearly every 
year, whilst the other enjoys comparative immunity from it. The 


injury done to vines by this scourge is very great. A single storm is 
capable of annihilating in a few minutes an entire crop. 

6th. Several other points ought to be considered, such as the 
visitation of locusts. In order to be as little exposed as possible, the 
shelter of some natural obstacle, such as a creek, river, belts of timber, 
or a high range of hills should be taken advantage of where 

Other considerations, such as distance from market, facility of 
obtaining labour, &c., &c., should receive due consideration, but need 
not be mentioned here. 

The above conditions must be fulfilled in any vineyard, no matter 
how or where situated. There are others which vary with the 
climatic region in which the vineyard may be situated, so must be 
considered separately for each. 

First Region. 

The great advantages of this region have been mentioned ; it is 
not, however, without its drawbacks. The vine, growing with less 
vigour than in the warmer districts, necessitates closer planting, 
which, without increasing the crops, renders cultivation more expen- 
sive, there being more vines per acre to prune, disbud, tie up, 
sulphur, &c., &c., whilst the work of ploughing and scarifying is also 
rendered more difficult. 

In addition to this, the frequent summer rains promote the growth 
of weeds, or cause the flowers to set badly and facilitate the develop- 
ments of fungus diseases; whilst in the colder parts unfavorable 
weather towards vintage time may interefere with the proper ripening 
of the grapes. On account of these many drawbacks a site requires to 
be chosen with great care in this region. Contrarily to what we will 
find to be the case for the other two regions, the vineyard should be so 
situated as to promote the production of alcohol, otherwise the wine 
would be too weak. Hill sides with a N. or N.E. aspect should alone 
be selected, unless the ground be almost level, as on the summit of a 
rise, when the direction of the slope is of no consequence. Low- 
lying flats are most unsuitable, and should never be selected. A 
slope steeper than 1 in 7 is not to be recommended, as considerable 
quantities of soil would be carried away by the rush of the water 
during the winter. The soil must be friable, easily cultivated, 


preferably pebbly, and of such a nature as to insure thorough drain- 
age. If these conditions are fulfilled a pale-coloured surface will 
promote the ripening of the fruit. If the drainage be not thorough 
a darker soil is to be preferred. Rich soils, especially black or peaty 
ones containing much organic matter, should never be planted with 

The " cepages " which give the best results vary according to the 
chemical character of the soil and the temperature of the spring and 

In a limestone soil with fine spring but early autumn, the best red 
wine will be produced by the Pinots, either the ordinary Pinot Noir 
or the Millers Burgundy (Pinot Meunier); under similar conditions 
this sort yields the celebrated Burgundies of France. The Pulsart 

ano ther sort which would do well under these circumstances. It is 
also a better bearer, and does not suffer from frost to any considerable 
extent. If the autumn be fine, the Mondeuse would prove a valuable 
red sort, as it gives large yields of good wine, it ripens later than 
either Pinots or Pulsart. The Malbeck is also to be recommended, 
although it frequently sets badly at flowering time. 

For white wine the different white Pinots, the Pinot Gris, and 
Aucarot will give the best results. The Chasselas may be added to 

In granitic and schistose soils the most suitable red sorts are 
Shiraz or Red Hermitage, and Gamay, whilst for white, Roussanne 
or White Hermitage, Riesling, and Tokay. 

On a clayey subsoil, covered with a more or less sandy or loamy 
surface soil, most of the above-mentioned sorts thrive. Those, how- 
ever, which give the best results are the Bordeaux varieties, Cabernet, 
Carmenet, Verdot, Merlot, and Malbeck, more especially if the soil be 
sandy, or rich in quartz pebbles. The Shiraz (Red Hermitage) also 
gives very good results in it, whilst it is a better bearer than most of 
the above. 

For white wine, the Semillon and Sauvignon (white) will give 
excellent results, as also will Riesling, White Hermitage, and Chas- 
selas. The latter will serve to blend with either of the former 
varieties, although they must not be blended with each other. The 
Tokay and Pinot Gris also give good results in such a soil. 


Second Region. 

This is, perhaps, the region in which the greatest facilities are 
offered to the grower, he having few of the drawbacks which are to 
be met with in the cool region to contend with. The vine growing in 
a more luxurious manner enables larger crops to be obtained from 
vines planted farther apart. The wine, however, although in many 
cases excellent, is of a rather different character, and not so delicate 
as that of the last region. It is, if anything, too strong; so, in selecting 
a site, unless with a view of making liqueur wines, raisins, or currants, 
the chief preoccupation of the intending planter must be to aim at 
diminishing the percentage of alcohol. The most favorable aspect for 
this purpose will be S.E., or W. Level ground, with sufficient 
slope to allow surplus water to drain off, will give very good results. 
A sandy soil should also be sought for ; wines in such soils being 
considerably lighter than those grown in stiffer ones. Limestone soils 
should be reserved for the production of strong wines, and should 
be avoided for the production of those of lighter character. In 
this region several of the sorts mentioned above will give excellent 
results in the same descriptions of soil as suits them in the 
first region. These are Aucarot, Pulsart, Shiraz (Red Hermitage), 
Gamay, Roussanne, Riesling, Merlot, Verdot, and Malbeck. The 
latter gives excellent results, being far less liable to set badly 
than in the cooler part. These sorts should not be planted 
exclusively in a vineyard, as the wine made from them would 
be too strong; they should be used to give bouquet and 
other qualities to the wine, whilst other sorts producing lighter 
wine form the! basis of the vineyard, of these several will thrive 
in any soil. They are the Dolcetto, Black Hambro, Black Prince, 
Black St. Peter, Mataro, Morrastel, and Carignane, whilst a 
certain 'percentage of juice of La Folle grapes would greatly improve 
the quality. The Oeillade and Grenache may be added to this 
number ; they give the best results in schistose and granitic soils. 
For dry white wines the sorts to be recommended are Riesling, 
Chasselas, Doradillo, and Tokay, although the latter does not give 
such satisfactory results as in the first region. To these may be 
added the Sweet Water, which produces large crops of good light 
wine well adapted for reducing the strength of the other wines. 


The Gouais is a sort which should not be too extensively planted. 
Good wines of a strong character may be made on stony hill sides, 
with N. or N.E. aspect from the following sorts : For red, 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenet, Grenache, and Pinots. For white, 
Pedro Ximenes, in granitic or schistose formations, where also the 
Roussanne will give a strong wine. Verdeilho, which, perhaps, 
is superior to any other for the production of a wine of a Madeira 
type ; and, lastly, the Muscats, which yield excellent liqueur wines 
of well-known character. 

Third Region. 

This region cannot produce wines as light as those of the two former 
ones. The object of the grower in this region being to make a wine con- 
taining as little alcohol as possible, the same precautions should be 
observed as mentioned for the last region, such as S. or S. W. aspect, and 
sandy soils. Under these conditions excellent dry wines, containing 
less than 25 per cent, of alcohol, may be grown in abundance, well suited 
for commercial purposes, and which should successfully compete with 
wines of similar character imported largely into France from Spain and 
other warm countries. For this purpose only a limited number of 
sorts mentioned as suitable for the first region should be tolerated ; 
in fact they are Shiraz and Malbeck, and they should be only 
sparingly planted. Such sorts as Aramon, Carignane, Cincaut, 
Grenache, Mataro, Aspiran, Morrastel, and Oeillade are, without doubt, 
the most suitable ones. The three last-named would produce a 
lighter wine of very good quality without any other admixture. The 
Grenache is better suited for the production of liqueur wines, as also 
are Muscats, Malvoisies, Roussanne, Verdeilho, Pedro Ximenes,. 
Aucarot, Maccabeo, &c., whilst for the production of a light white 
wine, Cbasselas, Riesling, Doradillo, La Folle, and perhaps also Sweet 
Water and Gouais may be named. 

It is needless to mention that this region is better suited than the 
others for the cultivation of raisin and currant varieties. 




Having selected the site for the vineyard, the next thing to do is 
to prepare the soil for planting. 

The vine being a deep-rooted plant, the greater the ease with 
which its roots can penetrate to a considerable depth the more 
vigorous and healthy will it be, the longer will it live, and the 
better will it be able to stand severe drought during the summer 
months. No means facilitates the penetration of the ground by the 
roots more than deep preliminary cultivation, which is, therefore, not 
only beneficial but necessary. Many persons are in the habit of 
saying thp* deep cultivation is unnecessary, and that they have 
observed vLies doing better on land which was simply ploughed to a 
depth of a few inches than on that which was subsoiled. This may 
be the case for the first few years, but once the vines have attained 
their full development, the difference between the yield of the two 
soon becomes manifest, the advantage, of course, being on the side of 
the properly cultivated vines, which will continue to thrive for many 
years without becoming exhausted. Although good results are often 
obtained on land which has received only a simple ploughing, far 
better results would have been obtained had it been more deeply 
worked. The longevity of vineyards in the old country, where vines 
have frequently been cultivated for centuries on the same land, is, in 
a great measure, to be attributed to proper preparation of the soil. 
Although a stiff soil naturally benefits more by deep cultivation than 
a free one, it has been found in France, at Aigue Mortes, where vines 
are planted in almost pure sand in order to enable them to resist the 
attacks of the phylloxera, that, contrary to expectation, trenching to 
a considerable depth (2 or 3 feet) had a most beneficial effect on the 
growth of the vine, and increased the yield to a considerable extent. 

The stirring of the soil does not only act mechanically, in rendering 
it penetrable for the roots, but by aerating it renders certain sub- 
stances more readily assimilable. In addition to this it improves the 
drainage and enables rain to be absorbed more readily, as well as a 
proper amount of moisture to be retained. 


Gaillardon is of opinion that deep cultivation diminishes the aromatic 
taste to be met with in some Algerian wines, which he considers to 
be due to the presence of debris of aromatic plants in the surface soil. 
It is quite possible that the same rule might apply in Australia, where 
the debris of Eucalyptus leaves which have been collecting on the 
ground for thousands of years may be responsible for the "Australian 
taste " with which many of our wines are sometimes reproached by 
European connoisseurs. The freedom from peculiar taste of wines 
grown on sandhills where no Eucalypti exist tends to confirm this 
theory. The depth of the preliminary cultivation depends upon the 
climate. The warmer and drier this is the deeper ought it to be. 
Vines growing in a warm climate attaining a far greater development 
than is the case in a cold one, the roots, which spread more or less 
equally in every direction, require a deep soil. In addition to this, it 
may be mentioned that the deeper the soil is worked the lighter will 
the resulting wine be. 

If we examine what is usually done in France we will find that in 
the northern parts the preliminary cultivation is extremely shallow, 
whilst in the warmer and drier south it is very deep, except in certain 
parts where a thin layer of soil rests on broken limestone, easily pene- 
trable by the roots of the vine. Such soils, called " Garrigues" prevail 
in Languedoc and part of the Herault and Pyrenees Orientales, and 
this accounts for the small depth to which they break up the soil in 
these places. The following are the ordinary depths to which the 
soil is broken in some of the leading wine countries of Europe : 

Provence (southern France) ... ... 30in. to 39in. 

Hermitage ... ... 50in. 

Douro (Portugal) ... ... ... 39in. to 59in. 

Cyprus (island of) ... ... ... 28in. to 32in. 

Bordeaux (medium climate of France) ... 24in. 

Beaujolais ... 24in. 

Burgundy (cooler part of France) ... 14in. 

Champagne ... 12in. to 24in. 

Canton de Vaud (Switzerland) ... 36in. to 39in. 

In Australia it would never pay to subsoil land to such depths, on 
account of the high price of labour, and the following will be found 
quite sufficient for each region. 

First or cool region from 12 to 18 inches ; second region, 18 to 24 
inches; and third region, 24 to 30 inches. 


There are three ways of breaking up the ground 1. Subsoiling or 
breaking up the soil to the required depth, but leaving the different 
layers in theirnatural position ; 2. Trenching or breaking up the soil in 
such a way as to bring the subsoil to the surface and bury the surface 
soil at the bottom of the trench; 3. Mixing the surface and subsoil to 
the required depth. This last method necessitates the employment 
of hand labour, and being, therefore, too expensive for application in 
Australia, need not be considered here. We have thus to decide 
between subsoiling and trenching. 

This is one of the vexed questions of viticulture, many persons 
holding different opinions about it. In the evidence given before the 
Koyal Commission on Vegetable Products, the majority of witnesses 
are in favour of subsoiling (see Appendix A), and, in fact, this method 
is the one which will give the best results in the great majority of cases. 
In Australia, the most common description of soil is a more or less free 
surface, resting on a rather stiff subsoil ; in such a case trenching 
would prove injurious, as by bringing the subsoil to the top the surface 
would be rendered stiff and difficult to cultivate. It would hinder 
the absorbtion of water during rain, and by the facility with which it 
would cake and crack, would promote in an undue manner the 
evaporation of the necessary moisture during the summer, besides 
rendering the proper aeration of the soil very difficult. 

Trenching is only to be recommended in the somewhat exceptional 
case when the subsoil, or at least the soil situated at the depth of a 
foot or so be looser than the surface soil, or capable of becoming so 
by exposure to the action of the air. In places where the soil con- 
tinues identical or practically so to the depth of 3 or 4 feet, it is 
indifferent which method be employed, although perhaps trenching 
is to be preferred, as the well-aerated surface soil, being buried whilst 
fresh layers were exposed to the action of the air, would have a most 
beneficial effect upon its fertility. 

Partial subsoiling, or only subsoiling a foot or so on each side of 
the row in which the vines are planted, is not a judicious operation, 
as it places the roots in a sort of drain, where they are liable to suffer 
from too much moisture. The advantages to be gained from such a 
course would in any case be small, as it must be remembered that the 
roots of the vine spread in every direction, and not only immediately 
under the plant itself. 


The best time to subsoil land for viticultural purposes is at the end 
of the autumn, when the first rains have sufficiently softened the 
soil to render the operation possible. This presents the great advan- 
tage of exposing the newly-broken land to the action of air, rain, 
frost, &c., during the whole of the winter preceding the planting, thus 
rendering it loose and sweetening it in a considerable degree. 

Before proceeding to subsoil, the land should be thoroughly cleared, 
all trees and bushes being removed, and roots run to the depth of at 
least 18 inches or 2 feet. Any live trees should be ring-barked 
during the early summer; they will be dead by the time subsoiling is 
to be commenced, and will send up no suckers. They may be pulled 
out with a Forest Devil, or one of the numerous appliances used for 
this purpose, after the soil round the roots has been loosened. All 
rubbish should be burned on the ground itself, the ashes, containing a 
considerable amount of potash, forming a valuable manure. 

The best way to subsoil land is with a double-furrow plough 
specially made for the purpose, the second or front mouldboard of 
which has been removed and replaced by the subsoiler which 
consists of a curved bar of iron so arranged as to be capable 
of being raised or lowered by a lever, and carrying an ordinary 
plough-share at its lower extremity or terminating in a 
broad point like the chisel tooth of a scarifier. An ordinary plough 
opens up a furrow to the depth of 8 inches or so, then the subsoil 
plough can be started, the subsoiler engaging in the furrow already 
opened, and stirring the soil to the required depth, whilst the shear 
and mouldboard open up a fresh one in which the subsoiler will work 
on the second round, and so on. 

In moderately stiff soils five horses ought to be able to subsoil an 
acre per day to a depth of 18 inches. 

If the ground has not been thoroughly freed from roots, or there 
are stones which interfere with the progress of the plough, it will be 
better to substitute for the above two single ones, which follow each 
other in the same furrow, the second one being without a mould- 
board. Any stoppage of one of them will not interfere with the 
working of the other. 

In order to trench the soil, the best way is to employ an ordinary 
plough to go first and open the furrow to as great a depth as possible, 
and follow up in the same furrow with a trench plough with a high 
mouldboard capable of raising the soil to the surface. 


If the trench plough be sufficiently strong, and a good team of 
bullocks be available, it will be possible to turn the soil to a depth 
of 15 inches in a single operation. The ground, after having 
been subsoiled or trenched, as the case may be, and left exposed 
during the winter, will have settled down considerably and be almost 
level. It should then receive a light ploughing and harrowing, when 
it will be in a fit state for planting. 

Any parts which are sour and swampy (especially in the first 
region) should be drained. Places of this character should be care- 
fully marked when observed, and properly drained before being 
planted with vines. 

The most suitable system of drainage consists of a series of small 
drains running into larger ones, which in turn empty themselves into 
main drains situated in suitable positions. 

FIG. 9. 

A glance at Fig. 9 will show the disposition of these drains. 
The small arrows indicate the direction of the greatest fall, a a, the 
main drain, which may be situated along a gully, in which case it 
can be left open, b b b are the secondary and c c c the small drains. 
All the drains should be so placed as to make as great an angle as 
possible with the line of greatest slope. This presents the double 
advantage of not giving too much fall, in which case the scour might 
be too great, and rendering the drainage more effective. A drain 


often acts as beneficially by intercepting the water from above and 
preventing it from entering the parts requiring drainage as another 
one would by carrying off the water which is already there. 

The main drains should, if closed, be made of stone, slabs, or 
earthenware pipes, and should be of sufficient size to enable them 
to carry off all the water brought to them by the others. The 
secondary drains may be made of slabs or stones, but more economical 
and quite as effective ones may be made of vine-cuttings or scrub, 
the former being preferable. 

These drains should be dug to a depth of 2 to 3 feet, or until the 
good clay subsoil be reached ; they may be from 9 inches to 1 foot in 
width at the top, tapering down to 6 inches at the bottom. They 
are then filled in with vine cuttings, which must be put in carefully 
in order that no vacant places are left where the water lodging would 
cause the whole drain to collapse and become useless. They should 
not be put in bundles, but by small quantities at a time, starting from 
the top of the slope and working down, so that the layers are 
arranged the reverse order to that which slates are fixed on the 
roof of a house. They should be rammed tight, and filled in with 
earth. A layer of straw or weeds will prevent any loose earth from 
falling through, and will thus keep them more open than would 
otherwise be possible. Drains of this class may be made of a 
maximum length of 200 to 300 yards, they last for upwards of 
twelve years, and even when quite decomposed leave sufficient spaces 
to insure an escape for surplus water, whilst the decomposed cuttings 
make an excellent manure for the vines growing in proximity to 
them. The small drains need not be so deep as the secondary ones 
in Fig. 10. The secondary drains are 300 yards in length, and the 
small ones being 80 yards long and 40 yards apart; in this case we 
have a gradual slope, for which reason the angle between the small 
and secondary drains is acute, in order to insure a sufficient fall for 
the water ; on a steeper slope the angle might be made obtuse, an 
advantage, as it would enable less drains to be made per acre. It is 
not always on ground without much slope that drains are wanted; it 
frequently occurs that on steep hillsides there are sour wet spots 
which must be drained ; in such cases the whole block would not 
require to be systematically treated, and the vigneron must use his 
judgment and only drain what is necessary, as the process is 
expensive, and should not be applied unless where required. 




A vineyard should be methodically laid out and planted in such a 
manner as to enable a maximum of yield to be obtained with the 
employment of a minimum of labour, the high price of which in 
Australia renders many methods often applied in Europe imprac- 
ticable with us. 

As in the case with most other vineyard operations, no fixed rule 
can be given, the laying-out depending essentially on the climate, 
soil, and sorts grown ; so much is this so that a perfectly laid out 
vineyard on the Murray would be most unsuitably so in one of the 
cooler districts of the colony. 

In laying out the vineyard we have to consider 

1. Distance apart of the vines. 

2. Arrangement of the vines. 

3. Extent and form of the blocks. 

The distance apart of the vines, having considerable influence upon 
the disposition and form of the blocks, must be considered first. 

Perhaps no question concerning viticulture has given rise to more 
discussion than this, the most conflicting opinions being held by 
practical vignerons. 

It is impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule for the distance 
which vines ought to occupy relatively to each other. The vigneron 
must be guided by practical experience and by climatic and 
economical considerations. 

It was mentioned (p. 10) that plants exhale a considerable amount 
of water through their leaves, If the ground contains too much 
moisture, close planting, by giving more leaves per acre, enables more 
water to be got rid of than would be the case if the vines were 
planted far apart. In the warmer districts the reverse is the case, 
the amount of moisture is insufficient, and, if recourse cannot be had 
to irrigation, the vines will suffer if not planted at such a distance 
that each vine has a sufficient store of water at its disposal. This 
necessity for planting vines far apart in a warm climate is much 


intensified by the great augmentation in the vigour of the plant under 
the influence of the increase of light and heat to which it is there sub- 
jected. We saw (p. 9) that the less grapes there are on a vine the richer 
the must will be in glucose, and consequently the stronger will the wine 
be the vigour of very closely-planted vines being small, the crop on 
each vine is lessened, and the resulting wine is stronger than 
would otherwise be the case, an advantage in a cool district where 
grapes sometimes ripen with difficulty, but a drawback in a hot 
climate where under normal conditions the wine is too strong, and the 
object of the vigneron is to reduce it as much as possible by natural 

In France the number of vines per acre varies very greatly; the 
following figures give some idea of the ordinary distances in some of 
the leading districts : 

Champagne ... 1ft. 3in. x 1ft. Sin. 

Burgundy ... 1ft. lOinx 1ft. lOin. 

Beaujolais ... 2ft. 4in. x 2ft. 4in. 

Hermitage ... 3ft. Sin. x 3ft. 3in. 

Cognac .J..yJ 3ft. 3in. x 4ft. lOin. 

Bordeaux ... 3ft. 3in. x 3ft. 6in. 

Sauternes ^ r-**i 2ft. Sin. x 4ft. 4in. to 2ft. Sin. x 6ft. Gin. 

Herault .,' *,', | 4ft. 6in. x 4ft. Gin. to oft. 3in. x 5ft. 3in. 

It will be seen from this table that the distance between the vines 
gradually increases as one goes from the north to the south of 

In Australia, where the high price of manual labour makes it 
imperative that the vineyard should be so arranged as to substitute 
by horse labour wherever possible, the majority of the above distances 
would be totally unsuitable. At 3ft. x 3ft. the ground must be worked 
by hand, and at 4ft x 4ft. it can only be worked with difficulty by 
horse labour during the summer months, unless the vines be tied 
closely to stakes or wires. 

It does not do to rush to extremes, and, except in exceptional 
cases, such distances as 12ft. x 12ft. are not to be recommended, as 
the diminution of the yield per acre would not be compensated by 
the greater facility with which the soil can be worked. As proof of 
this, let us suppose two plots of ground of one acre each, one planted 
oft. x oft., which we shall call J., and one planted 10ft. x 10ft., 
which we shall call B. A will contain 1,742 vines per acre, whereas 


B will only contain 435; if the individual vines bear the same crop 
in each block, A will give 400 gallons to B's 100 gallons ; therefore^ 
for each block to pay equally well, the cost of cultivation must be 
2 for B if it be 8 for A. 

If the individual vines of B bear twice as much as those of A, the 
yield would be as follows : A 400 gallons and B 200 gallons ; in such 
a case B would be the most remunerative block, although a third 
one planted at, say, 7ft. x 7ft. would probably give the best 

There is for each locality, with the same conditions of soil and 
climate, a certain distance, which we may call the optimum, at which 
vines will give the best results ; if this distance be increased they 
will not improve, and if it be diminished they will deteriorate. 
Unless this be a distance which cannot conveniently be worked by 
horse labour it would evidently be a waste of land to plant wider, 
and would entail the cultivation of unnecessary soil. It would be 
just as foolish to plant closer than this distance, as it would necessitate 
unnecessary pruning, disbudding, tying-up, &c.; that is, if the climate 
be such that grapes will ripen satisfactorily in it. 

In the first or cool region, the optimum distance is 4ft. x 4ift. or 
5ft. x 5ft., but vines may be planted as far apart as 6ft. x 6ft., on 
account of the greater facilities afforded for cultivation. In other 
words, the number of vines per acre should be from 1,200 to 2,000. 

In the second region it will be found more advantageous to plant 
vines farther apart, say 7ft. x 7ft., 8ft. x 8ft., or 8ft. x 5ft., or from 
680 to 1,100 vines per acre. 

In the third or warm region they should be planted still farther 
apart, 10ft. x 10ft., or about 400 vines per acre, being a very suitable 
distance. These distances may be varied to some extent by circum- 
stances. Vigorous varieties should be planted farther apart than 
weak ones. Vines in rich soils, growing more vigorously than in 
poorer ones, must also be planted farther apart. 

Arrangement of the Vines. 

There are three methods of arranging vines. These are the square, 
the quincunx or equilateral triangle, and the rectangular rows. 

The square system is so simple as to require no description. The 
following table gives the number of : vines per acre for different 
distances apart : 


Distance apart. Vines per acre. 

x 1 ft. ... 43,500 

x 14ft. ... 19,360 

x 2 ft. ... 10,890 

2J ft. ... 6,970 

3 ft. ... 4,840 

34ft. ... 3,556 

x 4 ft. ... 2,722 

x 44ft. ... 2,151 

x 5 ft. .., 1,742 

x 54ft. ... 1,440 

x 6 ft. ... v 1,210 

x 64ft. ... 1,031 

In the cool region, with vines planted 5ft. x 5ft., there is ample 
room to work implements in two perpendicular directions. At 6ft. 
x 6ft. they may be worked in four different directions. At distances 
stated for the other regions implements may at any time be worked in 
four directions. 

The quincunx system will be readily understood by reference to 
Fig. 10. It presents the advantage of enabling the ground to be 
worked in three directions, but is somewhat inconvenient, as the 
oblique rows towards the outside of the blocks are all of different 

1 ft. 

2 ft. 
2J ft. 

a" ft. 


4 ft. 

5 ft. 
5J ft. 

6 ft. 
64 ft. 

Distance apart. 

7 ft. x 7 ft. 

Vines per acre. 
... 889 

74ft. x 74ft. 
8 ft. x 8 ft. 

... 774 
... 680 

84ft. x 84ft. 
9 ft. x 9 ft. 

... 603 
... 537 

94 ft. x 94 ft. 
10ft. x 10ft. 

... 482 
... 435 

lift, x lift. 

... 360 

12 ft. x 12 ft. 

... 302 

13ft. x 13ft. 

... 257 

14ft. x 14ft. 

... 222 

15ft. x 15ft. 


FIG. 10. 

Each vine is opposite to a space, thus offering facilities for work- 
ing, it being possible to move the scarifier to avoid projecting 
branches. The vines are so situated that one is always equidistant 

G z 


from six others, for which reason it is sometimes termed the septuple 
system. The following table gives the number of vines per acre 
and distance between the rows for different distances of the vines 
from each other : 

between vines. 

between rows. 

Number of 
vines per acre. 

4ft. 3ft. 5in. ... 3,205 

5ft. ... 4ft. 4in. .. 2,025 

6ft. ... 5ft. 2in. ... 1,392 

7ft. ... 6ft. lin. ... 1,038 

8ft. ... 6ft. 11 Jin. ... 785 

9ft. ... 7ft. 9lin. ... 619 

10ft. ... 8ft. Sin. ... 505 

lift. ... 9ft. 6Jin. ... 420 

12ft. ... 10ft. 4 Jin. ... 330 

Planting in rectangular rows is to be recommended where vines 
are trained on wires; in any other case either of the two former 
systems is to be preferred. If the vines be placed at less than 
4 feet from each other in the rows it prevents cross cultivation by 
horse labour, thus presenting all the drawbacks of the trellis 
system without any of its advantages. 

In the third region, where vines must not be planted close, it 
may be advantageous to plant wider in one direction than another, 
even if the vines are to be staked or trained gooseberry-bush 
style. For example, 10ft. x 6ft. is more convenient than 8ft. x 
8ft., as it enables a dray to be driven to any part of the block, 
whilst it does not entail any considerable augmentation in the 
number of vines per acre. The number of vines per acre for 
different distances apart are as follows: 

Distances apart. 

Vines per 

Distances apart. 

Vines per 

4ft. x 3ft. 

... 3,632 

8ft. x 6ft. 

... 908 

5ft. x 3ft. 

... 2,904 

8ft. x 7ft. 

... 778 

6ft. x 3ft. 

... 2,420 

10ft. x 6ft. 

... 726 

6ft. x 4ft. 

... 1,816 

10ft. x 7ft. 

... 622 

6ft. x 5ft. 

... 1,452 

10ft. x 8ft. 

... 545 

7ft. x 4ft. 

... 1,556 

10ft. x 9ft. 

... 465 

8ft. x 4ft. 

... 1,360 

10ft. x lift. 

' ... 395 

8ft. x 5ft. 

... 1,090 

10ft. x 12ft. 

... 363 


If the vines are to be trellised the wires should run in the direction 
in which the vines are closest. This will leave more room for 
cultivating, and entail less manual labour per acre than would be 
the case if the rows were placed close together. 

There are several ways of marking out a vineyard before 
planting. If it be intended to plant in squares or rectangular rows 
this is a very simple matter. The sides of the blocks should be 
marked off at the required intervals with pegs or vine-stakes, and 
lines drawn across the block joining these marks. A chain, 
specially made for the purpose, with links of specified length, will 
be found very convenient. The chain being stretched across the 
block where a row is to be situated, the junction of each link 
indicates the position for a vine. If such a chain cannot be 
obtained, an ordinary piece of fencing-wire, or a gardener's line, 
may be substituted for it. This should be tightly stretched along 
the row. With a piece of wood of the required length for 
measure, the position of each vine will be easily ascertained. 

Persons having a really first-class ploughman in their employ will 
find it more economical to run furrows across the field at the required 
distance apart, two vine-stakes, or other easily-distinguished marks, 
one considerably behind and in a line with the other, being placed at 
the opposite side of the field to the one the plough is started from, 
to enable the implement to be guided with precision. The plough- 
man must be careful to always keep these in a line. If the ground 
be in very good condition the plough may be replaced by a wheel- 
barrow, the same precautions being taken in order to obtain straight 

Marking-out land for plantation according to the quincunx system 
is slightly more complicated, as the lines cut each other at an angle of 
60 degrees. If a theodolite or suitable instrument cannot be ob- 
tained, a convenient method is to only mark out every second line. 
Referring to Fig. 10, for example, rows 1, 3, and 5 would be marked 
out and rows 2, 4, and 6 inserted afterwards, each vine being inserted 
in the rectangle formed by four vines first marked. For example, if 
the vines are to be planted 6 feet apart, mark out the block as if for 
the rectangular system, the rows being 10ft. 4in. apart and the vines 
in these rows 6 feet from each other. By joining them diagonally the 
position of each vine in the intermediate rows will easily be obtained. 


The direction in which the lines are planted is not of very great 
importance if the vines are planted on the square or quincunx sys- 
tems. If planted on wires, it deserves consideration. 

It is often recommended to direct the rows north and south, one side 
receiving the morning and the other the evening sun; the fruit is 
more likely to ripen evenly. Other considerations, however, may be 
be of greater importance than this. If spring frosts are of frequent 
occurrence plant east and west, as the vines sheltering one another 
from the first rays of the sun will be less liable to sustain injury. If 
very strong winds or hail storms are to be feared their direction 
should be noted, and the rows directed accordingly. 

In steep ground care must be taken not to let the rows follow the 
line of greatest slope, especially if the vines are to be trained on 
wires, as the rush of water down the furrows in winter would be liable 
to carry off considerable quantities of soil. 

Provision should also be made for irrigation in localities where 
this may prove beneficial. 

Extent and disposition of blocks. A vineyard should be laid out 
in blocks separated by roads, which serve as a means of communi- 
cation with the pickers at vintage time, for the removal of cuttings, 
for the cartage of sulphur, manures, &c., as may be required, and to give 
turning room to ploughs, scarifiers, and other implements. The num- 
ber and extent of roads must be varied according to circumstances. 
The distance apart greatly modifies their distribution. If the vines be 
planted 10 feet apart, few of them will be required, there being room for 
a dray to pass freely between the rows. In such a case all that is 
necessary is a head-land at certain intervals on which implements 
may be turned. 

Care must be taken to lay the vineyard out in such a way as to 
enable the different cultural operations to be executed with as little 
turning as possible ; every time a plough or scarifier is turned it entails 
a much greater w^,ste of time than might be expected. The blocks 
should, therefore, be laid out in such a way that the rows of one 
correspond with those of the next one, so that the implements can 
work for a clear distance of, say, half-a-mile or so, without stopping 
at roads ; if this can be done in two directions, so much the better. 
If it be proposed to train part of the vines on wires, let the rows in 
this part be so directed as not to interfere with the above conditions. 

In more closely-planted vineyards, say anything less than 8ft. x 8ft., 
the distribution of roads is of far greater importance, and some 


definite system should be adopted. Dr. Guyot recommends to divide 
the vineyard into 2^-acre blocks, 50 yards wide by 200 yards long ; 
the roads, 200 yards apart, being 10 feet wide, whilst the others are 
16ft. Sin. in width. Under these conditions 11*5 per cent, of the 
whole vineyard would be taken up by roads. 

In Victoria it will be preferable to have the main roads wider, say, 
25 feet, and the smaller ones not less than 12 feet. If the vines be 
staked or trained gooseberry style, they should be divided into 5-acre 
blocks, say 5x10 chains ; if trained on wires, these blocks might, 
with advantage, be divided into two by a narrow road running length- 
ways. This greatly facilitates work at vintage time, and enables 
lighter straining posts to be used for the wire, the expansion and 
contraction of which is also less on a short length. 

The division of a vineyard into blocks of the same size is to be 
recommended ; it greatly facilitates observation and comparisons, 
and is a great advantage if part of the vineyard is to be worked by 

The roads should be made deeper than the rest of the vineyard, in 
order that they may, to a certain extent, act as drains. If properly 
formed, with a water-table on each side, they will be just as firm and 
maintain themselves in as good order as if raised above the surface of 
the rest of the vineyard, whilst, at the same time, they greatly benefit 
it by carrying off the surplus water. 

.The practice frequently adopted in Europe of cultivating other 
plants, such as wheat, asparagus, fruit trees, &c., between rows of 
vines is strongly to be condemned, especially in a dry climate, where 
the vine requires all the moisture there is in the soil, especially when 
it is young and not deep-rooted and cannot obtain moisture from the 
lower layers of the soil. For similar reasons different sorts ought 
not to be mixed together in the same block, but kept separate. Their 
grapes can easily be blended at vintage time, and the grower will 
have the advantage of knowing in what proportion they are blended, 
as well as all particulars of yield per acre, &c., of such and such a 
sort, details of which he would otherwise be totally ignorant. 

The above are the principal points which require attention, and 
should be fulfilled by any one going in for viticulture in a thorough 
manner. Such conditions as shape of land to be planted or excessive 
steepness of portions of it may render it impossible to observe them 
in every detail, but nevertheless they should receive attention 
wherever practicable. 




The vine may be propagated in three ways 
By seed, 
By cuttings, 
By layers. 


is only resorted to for the production of new varieties, as the vines 
grown in this way often differ considerably from the parent stock, 
even if the seeds were not the result of hybridisation. 

Certain American sorts may be raised in this way if they are intended 
to form stocks to graft on. Such are the V. Solonis, some of the wild 
varieties of V. Riparia and V. Rupestris, and some of the other species 
which cannot easily be grown from cuttings, although these give more 
constant results. The seeds should be only taken from perfectly ripe 
grapes, and preferably from the finest berries of the bunch. They 
should be steeped in water for a few days, sown in October, and 
covered with about an inch or two of rich, loose soil. It takes about 
a month for them to appear above ground, and they will not com- 
mence to produce fruit till the fourth or fifth year. 

Although seeds are the means provided by nature for the repro- 
duction of the vine, and plants grown in this way are remarkably 
well constituted, it cannot be recommended to the practical vigneron. 


is the usual, and one may almost say the only, method employed on 
a large scale. It is our intention to here consider cuttings and rooted 
vines together In the following chapter we shall discuss the relative 
advantages of each. 

Any fragment of a vine shoot less than twelve months* old, and 
comprising one or more buds, may be looked upon as a cutting, and is 
capable of producing a new vine. 

* It may be of interest to mention that of late years vines have been largely 
propagated in France from what are termed herbaceous cuttings ; that is, the 
green fragments such as are broken off the vine when disbudding. They require 
great care on account of the facility with which they dry up, but otherwise 
strike easily. According to Fox, the softer the tissue the greater are the facilities 
for the emission of roots. 


Selection of cuttings. As a rule, when purchasing cuttings one is 
obliged to take what one can get, and hope for the best, but whenever 
it can be done they should be selected with the greatest care. 

The vine the cuttings are taken from has in many cases a marked 
influence on the character of the young vine. In a block planted 
exclusively with one variety there will often be differences between 
some of the individual vines. These differences bear upon such 
qualities as the size of the fruit or prolificacy of the vine, the latter 
being the more important. Some vines identical to the others in 
every other respect are almost completely sterile, whilst others are 
remarkably heavy bearers, and this may be observed on the same vines 
year after year. Cuttings taken from such vines would perpetuate 
the characteristic of the parent, and be either almost sterile or remark- 
ably prolific, as the case may be. During the summer or autumn, 
before the cuttings are taken, all vines in the vineyard which are 
remarkable for the quantity or quality of their fruit should be care- 
fully marked, and cuttings only taken from them. The sorts which 
require most care in this direction are the Chasselas, red and white 
Hermitage, and Pulsart. 

The portion of the vine the cuttings are taken from must also 
receive attention. Only such shoots as have borne or have been 
capable of bearing fruit should be selected for this purpose. The 
wood which fulfils this condition is that which, instead of growing 
directly off the old stem, grows off the wood of the previous year. 
Shoots growing off the old stem are termed in French "gourmands;" 
they, as well as suckers, should never be employed for cuttings; in 
certain cases the vines they give rise to are sterile. 

The age of the vine the cuttings are taken from is not of any 
consequence provided it be older than three years. 

There are two sorts of cuttings, viz., ordinary cuttings, which consist 
of any part of the shoot; and those which formed the lower end of the 
shoot, and have a small piece of two-year-old wood at their base. 
These, known in French as " crossettes," present the advantage of 
enabling the purchaser to see that they fulfil the condition of having 
been capable of bearing fruit, and are principally to be recommended 
on this account. They also strike more easily, as at the junction with 
the older wood there is a ring of buds, which facilitate the emission 
of roots. A cutting off any other part of the same shoot would 


ultimately produce as good a vine, although, perhaps, less liable to 
strike at first. 

The piece of old wood at the base of these cuttings should be 
removed before planting, as it is incapable of giving rise to roots. 
Care should be taken not to injure the above-mentioned ring of buds 
when doing so. 


Fig, 12. 

Fig. \2a represents an ordinary cutting; Fig. 125 one with a piece 
of old wood at its base; and Fig. 12c the same, with the old wood 
removed, all but the strip of bark which is in contact with the above- 
mentioned buds. 

Medium-sized, short-jointed cuttings give far better results than 
either very thick ones or thin, slender, and long-jointed ones. The 
wood must be well ripened, that is, it should have its regular winter 
appearance, and no trace of green at the extremities of the shoots. 
It must also be free from diseases of any kind, more especially 
anthracnosis or black spot. Cuttings which have been attacked by 
oidium, and which have brown or black marks on them in conse- 
quence, are not to be recommended as a rule, although if the injuries 
are only on the surface of the bark, and do not extend into the green 
part or cambium layer, no ill effects may result from their employment. 

The length of cuttings has given rise to much discussion. It 
may be said, in a general way, that the shorter it is the better will the 
resulting, vine be, as the more similar will the conditions be to those 
of a vine grown in the natural way, which is from seed. In the wild 
state the seed would doubtless germinate very near the ground, and 
send down roots penetrating the soil in all directions. The portion of 
stem of such a vine below ground would be exceedingly short. The 
more the cultivated vine resembles the wild one the more favorable 


will the circumstances be in which it is growing. As we have 
already seen, the complete root-system of the vine consists of tap- 
roots and laterals. If either of these develop themselves exclusively 
at the expense of the others the vine will not thrive. A long cutting 
produces a crown of lateral roots at each knot, and no tap-roots; it 
is thus very differently situated from that produced by a short cutting, 
which is much more similar to a seedling vine, 

Fig. 13 represents the vine resulting from a short cutting, Fig. 14 
that resulting from a very long one. 

FIG. 13. FIG. 14. 

Although vine roots must penetrate deeply into the soil, their 
junction with the stem should be as near the surface as possible. 

So great is the advantage of short cuttings over 
long ones that it has been recommended by many 
authorities to plant what are termed single-eye 
cuttings (Fig. 15). 

These are sown in drills like seeds, and covered with 
an inch or so of soil. They give excellent results, and FIG. 15. 
are of great value for reproducing rare sorts, as every eye will, 
under favorable circumstances, give rise to a plant. Some of the 
American sorts, which do not as a rule strike easily, are propagated 


in this way, being forced under glass. The resulting vines are 
excellent, and are, of course, as nearly as possible in the same 
conditions as if grown from seed. In spite of these advantages, 
the system cannot be recommended in practice, on account of the 
great care which must at all times be bestowed on the young plants 
in the way of watering, &c., in order to bring them to a successful 

It is evident from all this that a short cutting gives the best vine, 
but in practice it must be of sufficient length to permit it to reach 
layers of soil sufficiently moist to enable it to stand through the warm 
summer months until its own roots are capable of doing so. 

In dry climates, especially if the soil be porous, one will have to go 
to a more considerable depth in order to fulfil these conditions than in 
a cool district. This may be expressed in the following words the 
drier the climate the longer the cutting must be, and the shorter the 
cutting the better will the resulting vine be. 

The vigneron must carefully consider these points, and, using his 
judgment, fix upon a suitable length of cutting. As a general rule the 
following lengths will be found to suit the different regions: 
First region ... ... ... 8in. to lOin. 

Second region ... ... ... 12in. to 15in. 

Third region ... ... ... 15in. to 18in. 

If recourse can be had to irrigation, it is needless to say that the 
length of the cutting in the third region may be considerably reduced. 
In soils which retain moisture for a considerable time, the length 
may also be sensibly reduced. 

Preservation of cuttings. Although the vitality of the vine is very 
great, and fragments of shoots which have been exposed to atmos- 
pheric influences for a considerable time may grow when planted, 
this is by no means to be relied on, and the greatest care should be 
taken of cuttings after they have been removed from the vine in order 
to protect them from the drying influence of the air. Want of care 
in this respect is frequently the cause of failures in young plantations. 
The careless way in which cuttings are often sent by rail is strongly 
to be condemned. One frequently sees bundles of them lying for days 
at a time in an exposed state on railway platforms or in goods sheds, 
with the result, often blamed to other causes, that only 20 to 30 per 
cent, of them strike when planted. Had they been wrapped in damp 
straw before being sent to the railway station, although perhaps 


entailing a little more expense, the far greater percentage of strikes 
would amply repay the extra cost. 

Cuttings must therefore be carefully protected from the desiccating 
action of the air and sun from the time of their removal from the vine 
until the planting season; the longer this interval is the greater is 
the necessity for proper preservation. 

Cuttings are preserved in different ways, but none is more efficacious 
than burial in soil. They may be buried in a vertical or horizontal 
manner. Some persons advise to place them in heaps, with the lower 
extremities turned uppermost, and cover them over with soil; but 
this does not seem to give better results than if they were buried in 
an upright position. If cuttings have only to be preserved for a few 
Aveeks before planting out the bundles may be partially buried, that is, 
the lower extremities stuck in the ground to a depth of 9 inches or so. 
Before planting it is well to soak them in water for a day or two. 

Stratification of cuttings is the French term for their burial in a 
horizontal manner, as indicated (Fig. 16). This is more to be recom- 

FIG. 16. 

mended than the vertical position, and will in the great majority of 
cases give the best results. 

The soil in which cuttings are stratified should be loose and, pre- 
ferably, sandy. It should be sufficiently moist to prevent loss of 
moisture, but not wet, as this would render them liable to become 
mouldy or even to rot. 

A trench, about 18 inches deep and as wide as the cuttings are 
long, should be dug in such a position as to ensure thorough drainage. 
The cuttings should then be placed in bundles of 50 each, the earth 
replaced over them and well trampled. 

The advantages of this system are obvious; it gives thevignerona 
much longer time to plant his cuttings in, and at the same time 
causes them to strike far more readily, as the process serves as a 


preparation for the emission of roots, which takes place immediately 
after they are planted out. Cuttings may with perfect safety be left 
for several months in this way, provided the soil contain neither a 
deficiency nor an excess of moisture. 

Several means of facilitating the emission of roots have been sug- 
gested, such as removing narrow strips of the outer bark before 
planting; poundin them with a mallet, the bruises and splits thus 
caused, although promoting the formation of roots, often act injuri- 
ously by facilitating the penetration of too much water, which often 
causes the young vine to partially rot. Twisting the lower extremity 
has the same effect, and is less injurious. Soaking the cuttings in 
running water promotes their striking, but it should not be continued 
for too long a time, as it presents serious drawbacks if too prolonged. 

Several other methods have been also suggested, but they may be 
said to be quite unnecessary for the V. Vinifera or European sorts, 
which all strike with ease; they may give good results with some of 
the American sorts. 


Layering, although not a general operation for the production of 
young vines, may be extremely useful for the propagation of such 
sorts as do not strike easily from cuttings. Its principal utility, 
however, is for the replacement of one vine by another or the filling 
up of a vacant place with as little loss of time as possible. 

FIG. 17. 

Ordinary layering, as represented in Fig. 17, is so simple as to 
require little description. A trench, varying in depth from 1 to 2 feet, 
according to the climate,* is opened from the foot of the old vine to 
the place which the new one is to occupy. A shoot of not more 

* The wanner the climate the deeper should the trench be. 


than one year old is brought down and buried in this, the extremity 
being turned up so as to leave two buds free above ground. 

The underground part emits roots, and is at the same time nourished 
by the parent vine until severed from it, usually two years after the 
operation was performed ; by this time the roots of the young plant are 
sufficiently developed to enable it to dispense with the parent stock. 

Although fruit is often obtained the first year, thus saving consider- 
able loss of time, vines produced in this way are not well constituted; 
the laterals are greatly developed at the expense of the tap-roots, 
which are usually absent. We have, in fact, a vine such as is 
illustrated in Fig. 14, only still less desirably constituted, as the main 
underground stem, instead of penetrating deeply into the soil, runs 
along at a small distance from the surface. In a warm, dry climate 
such a vine would be unable to procure the requisite moisture from 
the deeper layers of the soil, and might suffer considerably. 

In a cold climate, where there is seldom or never any deficiency of 
moisture, and where grapes ripen with difficulty, this may be an 
advantage, as the weakening of the vine increases the strength of the 

For this reason the practice is common in colder parts of Europe, 
such as Burgundy, where vines are " provigne" as this operation is 
termed, every six or seven years, a certain number of vines being 
treated each year. 

Ordinary layering is also employed to obtain young rooted vines 
in some parts of France, but is not to be recommended. 

Complete burying of a vine is adopted when it is wished to replace 
an old vine by one or more young vines. This process will be readily 

FIG. 18. 

understood by reference to Fig. 18. It presents the same disadvan- 
tages as the previous method, and is only to be recommended in a cool 


climate. In Champagne this has become a regular cultural operation; 
the totality of the vines of a vineyard are thus buried every year, one 
shoot, cut back to three eyes above ground, replacing the vine of the 
previous year. 

FIG. 19. 

Reversed layering (Fig. 19) gives more vigorous vines than either 
of the other methods, the root-system being well constituted and 
identical to that of a vine raised from a cutting. Strange though it 
may seem, no ill effects result from the turning upside down of the 
stem of the young vine which this process entails. 

The buds on the long rod should be brushed off when they com- 
mence to grow, with the exception of the three or four nearest the 
ground. The young vine may be severed from its parent during the 
winter following the operation. 

It is unnecessary to insist that the part of the shoot buried in the 
ground should be much longer in a warm than in a cold climate, 
where 6 or 7 inches would suffice. Varieties which only strike with 
difficulty may be propagated in this way. The only disadvantage 
of reversed layering is to prevent cross cultivation during the summer 

Multiple layering is made use of for the propagation of such sorts 
as do not grow readily from cuttings. It is doubtful whether it 
would pay to have recourse to it on a large scale under ordinary cir- 
cumstances, although the plants obtained in this way are excellent in 
every respect. Small vine-growers having only an acre or so per year 
to plant would derive great benefit by adopting it. 


Fig. 20. 

A glance at Fig. 20 will enable the process to be readily under- 
stood. A small gutter is excavated at the foot of the vine which it 
is desired to propagate, and a rod from the vine is pegged down in it. 
The layer is covered with about 1 inch of soil, and the gutter is 
otherwise left open until the young shoots have attained a length of 
8 or 10 inches, when it is carefully filled. In the following 
winter it will be found that each shoot has formed a nice bunch of 
roots at its base, so that when separated from each other with the 
secateur each of the shoots a, b, c, d, e, f, and g constitutes an 
excellent young rooted vine, ready to be planted out. In a warm 
climate the layer should receive several waterings during the summer. 

From what we have seen, it is evident that the most practical and 
economical means of propagating the vine is by cuttings, although in 
certain cases some of the other methods may deserve consideration. 



The subject of planting brings us face to face with the serious 
question: Are cuttings or rooted vines to be preferred ? 

This is another of the questions upon which authorities differ in 
point of fact there is much to be said on both sides. 

The opinions of the witnesses examined by the Royal Commission 
on Vegetable Products, as will be seen in the Abstract appended 
hereto, are divided, although the majority admit that cuttings ulti- 
mately produce a better vine. This opinion is also shared by some of 
the best European authorities; others again consider that the difference 
between the vigour of plants grown in either way is insignificant. 

Other considerations than the vigour of the resulting vine are of 
greater importance in deciding which ought to be used. 

In very dry climates or poor soils rooted vines strike more readily 
than even very long cuttings, and, as they can for this reason be 
made considerably shorter, they ensure the resulting vines having 
a better root-system (p. 91). At the same time they present the 
disadvantage of being more expensive, whether if purchased as such 
or if raised by the vigneron himself in a nursery, as the extra handling 
would be rather considerable. 

Unless it be possible to irrigate, or the season be exceedingly 
favorable for transplanting, the time gained by the employment of 
rooted vines is so small as not to constitute a strong argument in their 

As a general rule, we may say that the employment of cuttings will 
prove most economical in all cases where they strike with ease (not 
less than 70 per cent.). If the number of misses reach 50 per cent, 
it will pay better to employ rooted vines. 

In this chapter we have to consider 1st, planting of cuttings in 
the vineyard ; 2nd, planting of cuttings in the nursery; 3rd, planting 
of rooted vines in the vineyard. 



The depth at which cuttings should be planted is determined by 
their length. This has already been discussed in the previous chapter 
(p. 90). They should be planted at such a depth that two eyes 
alone are left above ground ; one only is necessary, but it is 
better to have " two strings to one's bow," and if two shoots develop 
themselves they will each grow less vigorously than if either existed 
alone, and consequently be less liable to be broken by strong winds. 
The lower of these eyes should be level with, or half an inch or so 
below, the surface of the ground. 

The time for planting depends to some extent upon the climate; 
the warmer this is the earlier ought vines to be planted. 

In the great majority of cases our Victorian vignerons plant their 
vines far earlier than is necessary or even beneficial. Cuttings properly 
stratified, as directed in the previous chapter, need not be planted o 
until the buds are on the point of bursting, as at this moment they 
will find the soil in the best condition for the continuation of their 
growth. In a warm climate this will, of course, take place sooner 
than in a cold one; and if drought is to be feared they should be 
planted out as soon as the terminal buds show a tendency to swell. 

The commencement of September is the most favorable time for 
planting in the third region, whilst the beginning of October would 
not be too late in the first. In many parts of France stratified cuttings 
are not planted out until the parent vines have already come into 
leaf ; it has been observed that the percentage of strikes is increased 
by such a course. 

Inclination of cuttings. In many parts of France it is cus- 
tomary to bend portion of the base of the cutting at right angles with 
the remainder in the hole in which it is planted, or to plant it 
slanting, sometimes so much so that it only makes a very small angle 
with the surface, 

Except in a very cold climate, where it is desired to weaken the 
vine in order to facilitate the ripening of the grapes or where the 
roots must be kept near the surface to ensure their receiving sufficient 
heat, no advantage is to be derived from such a practice. As we 
have already seen, the shorter the cutting the better the resulting 
vine. Cuttings are only increased in length in order that the base 
may be situated in deep, moist soil. It is evident that the same 

H 2 


cutting placed perpendicularly will reach deeper than one planted 

For this reason perpendicular planting is to be recommended in 
Victoria at least in all the districts where the vine is cultivated as 

Method of planting. Cuttings may be planted in several ways, but 
the principal ones are with the spade and with the bar. 

In loose, friable soils, which are not liable to cake, the bar or dibble 
will give very good results. 

FIG. 21. 

Such a one as represented in Fig. 21 is to be preferred, as the pro- 
jecting piece of iron () insures all the holes made being of a uniform 
depth, and at the same time greatly facilitates the work, the vigneron 
being able to use his foot as well as his hands to force it into the soil. 
The bar, after being inserted into the ground to the required depth, is 
moved to and fro to enlarge the hole. The cutting, which will benefit 
by being dipped in a mixture of cowdung, clay, and water, is placed in 
the hole into which some soil (mixed with a little manure if it be very 
poor) is tightly rammed, the hole should be gradually filled, only small 
quantities of soil being introduced at a time, the soil near the surface 
should be left in a loose state to a depth of a couple of inches. It is 
essential that the contact between the cutting and the soil be as inti- 
mate as possible, especially at the base, care should therefore be taken 
not to put too much soil into the hole before ramming, but to fill 
gradually. A very good method to insure a perfect contact with the 


soil at the base of the cutting is to pour into the hole before its in- 
sertion about half a pannikinful or so of a mixture of soil, water, and 
manure of about the consistency of treacle, the remainder of the soil 
is then put in and well rammed. 

In stiff soils planting with the bar often gives unsatisfactory results, 
as the soil becomes compressed on the sides of the hole and hardens 
it to such an extent that the young roots can only spread with diffi- 
culty. In such a case the hole should be made with a spade, and the 
soil, which will greatly benefit by the addition of a little manure, 
rammed in tightly with a rammer or with the foot. Should the soil be 
very stiff, better results will be obtained by filling the hole around the 
young plant with loose soil brought from elsewhere than with the soil 
taken out of the hole. If the soil be very sandy, the addition of a 
spadeful of good manure to the soil taken out of the hole will greatly 
facilitate the strike. When planting, it will be found advantageous to 
employ several men, each of whom has his special work to do. The 
best vigneron should ram the soil around the cuttings, this being the 
operation requiring most attention in order to insure a good strike. 

Sometimes two cuttings are planted in each hole in case one does 
not strike. If both strike, one should be removed before it has 
attained considerable development so as not to allow its removal to 
interfere with the roots of the one which is to remain. 

In very dry districts only one bud should be left above ground, 
which should be covered with a small heap of sand or very loose soil 
to protect it from atmospheric influences until the commencement of 


If it be intended to plant rooted vines a nursery should be formed. 

The site for which must be selected with care ; a loose but not too 
sandy a soil is to be preferred for this purpose. If irrigation be 
possible so much the better. Above all, the land must be thoroughly 
drained. The cuttings to be planted in a nursery may be 2 or 3 inches 
shorter than would be necessary for those to be planted in the vine- 
yard ; in other respects the same rules hold good. The cuttings 
should be planted perpendicularly, and rammed as tightly as possible, 
especially at their base. 

The proper distance apart for cuttings in a nursery is 2ft. Gin. by 
Gin. or 3ft. by 6in., as it leaves room to cultivate ; they can, however, 


be planted as closely as 1ft. 6in. by 6in, without prejudice to the 
resulting plants. 

It is often stated that to make a nursery all that is necessary is 
to open a plough furrow, place the cuttings upright in it, and turn the 
soil against them with a second furrow. This is by no means to be 
recommended, as the second furrow cannot establish a sufficient 
contact between the cutting and the soil. In a cool district a certain 
proportion may strike, but in the warm region the great majority, if 
not the totality, would miss. 

To form a nursery properly a trench proportionate in depth to the 
length of the cutting should be opened up, preferably with the spade, 
although the plough may be employed for this purpose. In this the 
cuttings are placed as nearly vertical as possible (Fig. 22), the soil 

FIG. 22. 

taken out of the trench is then carefully put back in small quantities 
at a time, and tightly rammed with the foot, with the exception of 
the surface, which should be kept nice and loose, and preferably 
heaped up against the cutting, as in Fig. 23. 

FIG. 23. 

The proper time, &c., for planting cuttings in a nursery is the same 
as if they were to be planted in the vineyard. 


The length of time vines should remain in th nursery depends 
upon the growth they make, as a rule two-year-old vines are the best 
in the colder districts, whilst one-year-old ones give excellent results 
in the warmer parts on account of the greater development they have 
acquired during the time they are even to be preferred to two-year- 
old ones, which might have acquired so considerable a development 
that they could not be transplanted without injury to their roots. 

Whilst in the nursery the young plants should receive every care; 
the soil should be continually kept in a loose state and free from 
weeds. If remaining more than a year in it they should be pruned, 
one or two of the best shoots only being left, which are cut back to 
one eye each. 


The rooted vines should be extracted from the nursery with care in 
order to break as few roots as possible; the broken extremities of 
these should be carefully trimmed with a sharp knife, and the shoots 
pruned before proceeding to plant them, which should be done as 
soon as possible after their removal from the nursery. 

It is of the greatest importance that they should be planted out at 
exactly the same depth as they were in the nursery, the underground 
part being unsuited for exposure to the air. 

A hole should be dug with the spade, into the bottom of which a 
little loose surface soil, and if possible a little quantity of manure, is 
thrown, the young vine is placed in it, the roots being carefully sepa- 
rated from each other, if entangled, and spread out in all directions ; 
the remainder of the earth is put back by small portions at a time 
and pressed with the foot but not rammed tight, as should be done 
with the cuttings. Care should be taken to loosen the surface soil 
thoroughly before leaving the vine. 

Young plants obtained by ordinary layering require the same 
treatment as those raised in the nursery. If the result of multiple 
layering (p. 96) they require rather more care, as their feeble depth 
at which they should be planted renders them very liable to suffer 
from drought. In fact this process can only be employed in the first 
and second regions (p. 21), or on a limited scale where it is possible 
to water them. 

A hole is dug into which the greater part of the earth is put back, 
after having been thoroughly loosened in such a manner that it will 


form a sort of cone, the summit of which is almost level with the 
surface of the surrounding soil. On this cone the young plant is 
placed, the roots being carefully spread around. The soil, after being 
beaten with the spade, is then put back, and heaped up around the 
stem of the young plant in such a way as to afford it as much 
protection as possible. 

Young vines should be staked, whether they be planted as cuttings 
or otherwise. This is a great advantage, as it enables them to be tied 
up, and thus escape the action of high winds and other causes of 
destruction, and insures the stem of the resulting vine being straighter 
than would otherwise be the case. The stakes used for this purpose 
may be small temporary ones, but it is far better to at once establish 
the permanent ones, which^must be employed sooner or later. 




The form of the vine, depending, as it does, upon the mode of 
pruning adopted, ought perhaps, strictly speaking, to be treated in 
the chapter devoted to that subject. The importance of proper 
training from the first, however, and the fact that a good many 
owners of young vineyards may find it useful to have a few plain 
hints as to how to prune their vines for the first two or three years, 
or before they have mastered the different methods of pruning adult 
vines, has led us to devote this chapter to the purpose. Moreover, 
as with the exception of a few methods not to be recommended in 
Victoria, all the different forms of vines may be said to require the 
same preliminary training in a given climate. 

If a vine be not properly formed from the first it is very difficult 
to get it into shape afterwards, and it must be borne in mind that the 
form exercises no inconsiderable influence upon the facility of culti- 
vation as well as on the quality and quantity of the wine. 

Vines trained according to any of the systems mentioned in this 
work consist of an upright stem or trunk, and an upper part or 
crown which may be of very variable form. 

Height of vines. The height of the vine above the ground, or, in 
other words, the length of the trunk, is not purely arbitrary, but 
should vary according to certain fixed laws. 

Vines with low crowns are liable to spring frosts, but, receiving 
more reflected light and heat in the summer, the fruit contains more 
glucose and yields a stronger wine. The facility with which the 
grapes become covered with mud or dust is, however, a disadvantage, 
as the soil, which is always alkaline, neutralizing part of the natural 
acid of the fruit, causes the fermentation to proceed irregularly and 
favours the production of lactic acid, the great enemy of the wine- 
maker in the warmer districts, where the grapes are often deficient in 
natural acid even under favorable circumstances. It has lately been 
suggested that the gout de terroir, or earthy taste, so common in 


our wines is caused by a certain amount of soil being- present in the 
grapes during fermentation. 

If the grapes are situated at some distance from the soil they are 
no longer exposed to these drawbacks, which are more serious in a 
warm than in a cold district, in which one is obliged to keep the 
fruit near the ground in order that the wine may not be too weak. 

As a general rule the crowns of all the vines in the second, and 
especially in the third, regions of the colony are far too low. Were 
these higher, heavier crops of wines lighter, more delicate, and 
better in every respect than those made at present could be produced. 
The extra length of stakes or wires this would entail would be amply 
compensated by the increased facilities for working given by the 
men not having to stoop so much when pruning, disbudding, or 
gathering the grapes. 

For raisin-growing, the crowns require to be lower than for wine 
grapes, as the object of the grower is to increase the proportion of 
glucose and lessen that of water as much as possible. 

For wine grapes the following heights will give good results : 
First region ... ... 1ft. 

Second region ... ... 1ft. Gin. 

Third region ... ... 2ft. 

For the production of liqueur wines these heights should be lessened 
in the second and third regions. 

Forming the stem. Having decided its length, the next thing is to 
form the stem. It is important that this should be thick and strong, so 
as to be able to support the vine, especially if it be grown gooseberry- 
style, and to allow the sap to circulate freely. It is evident that this 
is all the more necessary in the third region, where the vine attains a 
larger size than in the first, where its development is not considerable. 

We have already seen (p. 4) that the more gradually the stem is 
formed the thicker will it be. In the third region, therefore, it must 
be brought up to its final height gradually, a small portion being 
added year by year until the desired height is reached. 

In the first region we have already seen that more eyes may be left 
out of the ground than in the second or third ; in fact, it is better to 
leave two than one, and even three will not be too many provided 
they be close together. When pruning time arrives the vigneron 
must use his judgment, and leave a spur, pruned to two or three eyes, 
according to the strength of the plant, upon whichever shoot is the 


stronges-t (Fig. 24). The following year, if it be the upper shoot 
which was left, the shoots resulting from the development of the 

FIG. 24. 

two lower buds should be removed, and the upper one cut back to one 
or two eyes, according to the vigour of the plant. 

Fig. 25 shows the young vine now in its second year. The dotted 
lines indicate the mode of pruning. If the plant be very vigorous it 

FIG. 25. Fio. 26. 

may be cut in cr, otherwise it should be pruned to one eye in b. This 
rather close pruning will probably cause some of the buds at the base 


of the spur to develop, so that the third year the vigneron will be able 
to start forming the crown. The pruning in this case will be readily 
understood by reference to Fig. 26. The buds on a are capable of 
producing fruit during the ensuing season. The crown is now 
formed, and the vigneron will find the rules for subsequent pruning in 
another chapter. 

In the second and third regions the stem requires to be thicker 
than in the first, for which reason no part of the original cutting 
should be employed to form it, as this, having lost part of its vigour 
through transplanting, is not capable of producing so stout a stem as a 
new shoot. If the two eyes left have developed themselves, the upper 
one should be entirely removed, as well as the portion of old cutting 
between it and the lower one, which is cut back to three eyes. At 
the second pruning (Fig. 27) the top shoot A is cut back to three eyes 
and the lower two, B and C, removed, as is also the case again at the 
third pruning, as will be seen by reference to Figs. 28 and 29, which 


FIG. 27. FIG. 28. FIG. 29. 

represent respectively the third and fourth pruning s. At the third 
pruning (Fig. 28), the shoots B and C should be removed, and the 
shoot A cut back to three eyes in a. At the fourth pruning also 
(Fig. 29), the shoots C and B should be removed, and A cut back 
to three eyes in D. By this time the vine will produce some grapes; 
and at the fifth pruning two spurs, pruned to two eyes each, may be 


left, or, in other words, the crown may be formed in the same manner 
as was done for the first region. In this manner a good, straight 
stem will be obtained, and no more time lost than if the spurs were 
formed the second year, besides not presenting the danger of over- 
charging the young vine before it is fit to stand it. If by the fourth 
pruning the stem has not attained within 4 or 5 inches of what 
is to be its total length, it will be well to defer forming the crown till 
the fifth pruning, very little time being lost, since the vine is capable 
of bearing some six or seven bunches by this time on the shoots 
resulting from the development of the three eyes left. 

These are the general indications which, as a rule, ought to be 
followed with vines of ordinary vigour; but the intelligent vine- 
grower must use his judgment, and make the best use of the vigour 
of the vine, if this be above the average, or make allowance for it if 
below it. 




The objects of pruning are to increase the yield, to improve the 
quality of the wine, to ensure a uniform product by giving the same 
development to each vine, and also, by giving them a definite sym- 
metrical shape, to facilitate cultivation, and the instruction of the men 
who are to work in the vineyard. 

The fruit of the vine, unlike that of most fruit trees, does not grow 
off the old wood, but upon the green shoots of the current year, and 
only on those resulting from the development of buds situated on 
a shoot of the previous year, which in turn grows off the two-year- 
old wood of the vine. Any green shoots which do not fulfil these 
conditions will in nearly every case bear no fruit. The wood con- 
stituting the spurs or rods left when pruning must be chosen with 
care ; that growing off the wood of the previous year, which in turn 
grows off the two-year-old wood, is alone of use for this purpose. 

In Fig. 30 the shoots f, g, h, and k fulfil these conditions ; i, 
which grows directly off the two-year-old wood, and ,/, growing 


directly off the old stock of the vine, are incapable of giving rise 
to fruit-producing shoots for at least two years ; it is therefore 
useless to leave them when pruning, unless one or two eyes at their 
base be left in order to obtain wood for pruning on in a future 

All the buds on a shoot will not give rise to equally prolific shoots ; 
whilst some would give three bunches each, others might only give 
one, and others again might prove absolutely sterile. It is important 
to know what is the position of these prolific buds, as it is evidently 
useless to leave those which will not produce fruit. 

This position of the prolific buds varies with the kind of vine. 
With some they are at the base of the shoot, with others at a certain 
distance from the base, and with others again all the buds of a shoot 
capable of bearing fruit are equally prolific. 

Fig. 31 represents a vine of the second type. It will be seen that 
the shoots a and b have no fruit, whilst c, d, and e have two bunches 

On a vine of the first type the reverse would be the case, a and b 
having fruit on them, whilst c, d, and e are sterile or almost so. 

FIG. 31. 

This leads us to the question of long or short pruning, these being 
the two great classes into which all the different methods are divided. 

A vine is pruned short when the shoots of the year which are left 
to bear fruit or wood are cut back to two or three eyes each. 


A vine is pruned long if one or more of these shoots are left, each 
of which has on it more than five buds. 

It would be most foolish to short prune a vine having its prolific 
buds situated as represented in Fig. 31, as little or no fruit would be 
obtained. It would be just as foolish to long prune, or leave a long 
rod on a sort where the buds at the base were alone prolific. The 
others bearing no fruit would only develop themselves at the expense 
of the prolific ones, and thus be worse than useless. 

With a vine of the third description (one on which all the buds are 
prolific) it is a matter of indifference which method of pruning be 
adopted, provided a sufficient number of buds is left on each vine. 
This is in turn regulated to a great extent by the climate. 

Many erroneous ideas are held with reference to long pruning. 
From what has been said above, it will be seen that its adoption is 
chiefly regulated by the sorts of vine grown. In addition to this there 
are other considerations such as the strength of the wine which 
ought to influence the selection of the style to be adopted when one 
has to deal with sorts suited to either long or short pruning. 

Before describing the different methods of pruning, it will be well 
to briefly recapitulate the laws which govern this most important 
operation, some of which we are already familiar with. 

First. Within certain limits, the production of fruit is increased if 
the vigour of the plant be diminished (page 2). 

Second. The activity of vegetation on any branch is always greatest 
on the part of that branch farthest from the parent stem (page 4). 

Third. The activity of vegetation is greatest in a vertical shoot; 
the production of fruit greatest in a horizontal one. 

Fourth. The greater the number of shoots the lesser will the 
individual development of each be, and the greater the number of 
shoots the lesser the production of fruit on each, and vice versa (up to 
a certain limit). 

Fifth. The greater the quantity of fruit on a vine the smaller the 
percentage of sugar will it contain. 

Before pruning, a point must be mentioned which does not 
receive sufficient attention at the hands of our vignerons : this is 


to always cut a shoot through the bud above the highest one 
which it is intended to grow, as in Fig. 32, where the dotted line 

indicates where it should be cut. The 
natural partition is here taken advan- 
tage of to prevent the accumulation of 
water, &c., which might rot and split the 
shoot, and injure the bud below. As it 
may be rather difficult to cut exactly 
through this division, it is better to make 
the cut slightly above it and obliquely, 
so as to destroy the bud which it is not 
intended to keep. 

The vigneron having mastered these 
preliminary principles, we will proceed to 
describe the different methods of pruning. 

FIG. 32. 


This system, being the simplest, is the one which must be considered 

Vines pruned according to this method consist of a stem or trunk, 
and a crown composed of a variable number of short spurs radiating 
from the centre. These spurs consist of shoots of the year cut back 
to two or three eyes each. Care must be taken to leave the new 
spur in such a manner as to guard as much as possible against the 
excessive elongation of the arm which bears it. 

FIG. 33. 

Fig. 33 represents in detail, before and after pruning, an arm and 
spur of a vine pruned according to this style. If either of the other 
shoots were made use of to form the new spur, it would entail the 
leaving of a fragment of two-year-old wood of appreciable length, and 


if this was continued year after year the arm would become so long 
as to seriously interfere with cultivation. Pruned as in Fig. 33, the 
length of two-year-old wood left is reduced to a minimum. 

Several arms, each pruned in this way, are left every year, so that 
a complete vine will be as in Fig. 34. The same vine after pruning 
is represented in Fig. 35. The shoot b, growing off the old wood, has 

FIG. 34. 

FIG. 35. 

not been entirely removed, but cut back to one eye. Although 
incapable of giving rise to fruit-bearing shoots, it will give a shoot 
which can be employed to form a new spur at the ensuing pruning, 
when the old arm (extending beyond it) which has become too long 


may be removed. In other words, the eye at b is left to provide for 
the replacement of an arm, which, through old age or faulty pruning, 
had become unduly elongated. 

A properly pruned vine (pruned according to this system) should 
present spurs which radiate upwards and outwards, so that the young 
shoots springing from them do not get tangled and twisted together. 

The number of these spurs to be left upon a vine depends upon the 
climate ; if the ch'mate be cold, three or four will be ample, whilst 
if it be warm it will be better to leave a considerable number say, 
eight or nine. 

This is as much on account of the extra size of the vine under the 
influence of the increase in light and heat as to regulate to some 
extent the strength of the wine. The greater the development and 
number of bunches on each vine the lighter will this be, as we have 
several times had occasion to see. 

This method applies equally well to vines trained to stakes or 
gooseberry style ; but should never be adopted for vines trained on 
wires, as no advantage is to be gained, whilst all the disadvantages 
of the wire will present themselves. 

All vines which were said to require short pruning in Chapter IV. 
should be pruned according to this system. Those which will give 
good results with short or long pruning may also be pruned in this 
way in the cool parts of the first region. Those which were said to 
require long pruning should never be pruned in this way, although 
giving good results with either method. 

The Muscats should be short pruned, and if grown for the production 
of raisins should, in addition to this, have their crowns near the 
ground, so as to enable large berries, with as high a percentage of 
glucose as possible, to be obtained. 


Or, in other and general terms, long pruning, consists in leaving on 
the vine at pruning time one or more rods or leaders of wood of the 
current year having more than six buds or eyes on it. The shoot 
that has served during the previous year is removed and a new one 
brought down in its place, so that each leader only lasts a season. 

Great care should be exercised in the choice of the leader. It is 
unnecessary to say that it should fulfil the conditions illustrated in 
Fig. 30 (page 110), as unless capable of bearing fruit it would be 
absolutely useless. 

I 2 


Care must also be taken to make provision for a new leader for the 
ensuing pruning. Except great care be exercised in the green 
pruning, as we shall see hereafter, none of the shoots growing off the 
rod or leader of the previous year are eligible for the ensuing one. 

FIG. 36. 

Fig. 36 illustrates this clearly. The leader left here had eight 
buds on it. Of these the first two, a and b, have not developed 
themselves; c and d have only grown slightly, the shoots result- 
ing being too small to constitute a new leader. It would be 
necessary to go as far as f before obtaining a shoot of sufficient 
length and strength to form a new leader. If this were done, it is 
obvious that in a very few years the elongation of the arm of 
the vine bearing the leader would become so considerable as to 
seriously interfere with other operations. In order to obviate this 
difficulty a short spur is left at the base, which, by the development 
of the two eyes left on it, gives rise to the two shoots, c and d\ 
the one resulting from the development of the lower one (D, Fig. 36) 
is cut back to two eyes, in B, and forms a new spur termed the wood 
spur, although also capable of bearing fruit. The shoot resulting from 
the upper bud ((7, Fig. 36) forms the new rod, commonly termed the 
fruit rod. The old rod and fragment of two-year-old wood are re- 
moved by the cut marked A (Fig. 36), the two shoots resulting from 
the development of the buds on D (Fig. 36) will in turn provide for a 
new wood spur and fruit rod for the year succeeding their develop- 
ment, the rod formed by C being removed. 

This is the main point to master in the rod system of pruning. If pro- 
perly carried into effect, the elongation of the arm bearing the leader 
will not be more rapid than with the ordinary short spur system. 


When choosing the rod a shoot of medium vigour should be pre- 
ferred to a very thick long-jointed one, as it is likely to bear more 

The simplest form of rod-pruning is that recommended by Guyot, 
which consists in leaving only one wood spur and fruit-rod on 
each vine. Figs. 37 and 38 represent a vine pruned according to 
this method respectively before and after pruning. 

FIG. 37. FIG. 38. 

It will be observed that the crown of such a vine is rather near the 
surface of the soil; Dr. Guyot, living, as he did, in a cool district, 
was led to recommend such a course. 

In Australia it will be found preferable to effect some slight modifi- 
cations in this method, such as substituting wires for the large and 
small stake attached to each vine, and considerably raising the crown 

FIG. 39. 

of the vine. In the second region of the colony it will be best to 
leave two leaders on each vine, as is represented in Figs. 39 and 40, 


which respectively show the vine before and after pruning. It is as 
well to leave a spare short spur or two on a vine pruned in this way. 

FIG. 40. 

Should any accident happen to the arm bearing the leader, it may then 
be replaced without loss of time. 

If the vines be staked, it is still possible to prune them long; the 
leader is then brought round the crown of the vine, and tied either to 
one of the other arms or to the main stem of the vine. (Fig. 41.) 

FIG. 41. 

This presents the advantage of enabling cultivation to be carried out 
in several directions, each vine not occupying a much greater space 
than would be necessary for an ordinary short pruned vine. It is not 
necessary to explain that the leader should be selected in the same 
way as for the former system. 

This method, consisting of spurs and rod, may be termed the 
mixed system of pruning it gives excellent results with such 
sorts as the Shiraz (Red Hermitage), Tokay, Pinot, and several 


others, which are suited for either long or short pruning, as glated in 
Chapter IV. 

In warm climates with rich soils, where very large yields are to be 
expected, a more considerable development may be advantageously 
given to each vine, as is represented in Figs. 42 and 43, representing 
respectively the vine before and after pruning. It will be readily 


FIG. 43. 

seen that this system consists of two permanent branches, from 
which protrude a variable number of arms, each constituted accord- 
ing to Guyofs method. The temporary leaders may be inclined 


upwards at an angle of about 45, and tied to a second wire (the top 
one being reserved for the young shoots as they come out), or bent 
round and tied to the main branch of the vine. In forming such a 
vine care must be taken not to establish it too rapidly, but to only 
add, say, one arm bearing fruit-rod and spur each year until it 
has attained its full size ; in this way a vigorous long-lived vine may- 
be obtained with a stout stem, which will be capable of yielding 
enormous crops for a considerable number of years. 

These are the principal systems of training vines. There are many 
others chiefly variations of these which, although interesting, are 
not of sufficient practical importance to deserve a detailed description 
in an elementary work. 

Once the above methods are thoroughly mastered, all other methods 
will be easily learned. Amongst the most important are the 
Chaintres System, consisting of a rather ramified stem bearing 
spurs and fruit-rods, which are propped on small forks driven 
into the ground. When it is desired to cultivate, the whole vine 
is thrown bodily over into the next row, the forks withdrawn, 
and the ground tilled; the forks are then replaced, and the vine 
thrown back upon them. The same thing is done to the next row, 
and so on till the block is cultivated. Although this system gives 
very heavy crops of light wine, and the shelter of the leaves, which 
entirely cover the ground, keeps the latter cool in a dry district, it is 
very doubtful if the system would give good results in Australia, on 
account of the extra labour rendered necessary. 

Another system is training the vines on overhead trellises this is 
very suitable for such sorts as the Zante Currant and others requiring 
great extension. It is established on the same lines as the other 
systems, and only requires notice " en passant" The overhead part 
should be sufficiently high to enable a horse to pass underneath with 
the plough. Other systems, such as training vines on living or dead 
trees, are not practical, and therefore not to be recommended, especially 
the former. 

Time for Pruning. Vines must never be pruned before the wood 
of the year is ripe that is when it has lost its green herbaceous 
appearance, and assumed its ordinary brown or grey winter state; 
once this has occurred, it is safe to prune. This change is marked by 
the cessation of bleeding or flowing of sap when a shoot is cut. It 


varies with the season and the sort of vine, and should be fixed 
accordingly. In a general way the middle of May is not too early to 
commence pruning, especially for early sorts, such as PinotSj Chas- 
selas, &c. 

In certain cases it may be an advantage to prune very late. If 
spring frosts are to be feared, by pruning the early sorts only when 
the buds are beginning to swell, their coming into leaf will be delayed 
for as much as a fortnight, a sufficient time in most cases to enable 
them to escape injury from this cause. 

Again, late pruning is an excellent preventative of the non-setting 
of the grapes, to which some sorts are liable. The copious bleeding 
thus produced counteracts in a great measure the excess of sap in the 
vine, which we saw (p. 12) was in the majority of cases the cause of 
the abortion of a large number of flowers. It is well on this account to 
prune such sorts as are liable to set their fruit badly very late; these 
are chiefly the Cabernet, Malbeck, Riesling, as well as some others. 

Instruments for Pruning. In olden days the vine was pruned with 
a sort of hooked knife, termed a " serpette "; such an instrument was 
slow as well as dangerous, and has been replaced by the secateur, or 
pruning scissors, which is too well known to require description. A 
small garden-saw will also be found convenient for removing any old 
arms, &c., which cannot conveniently be cut with the secateur. 




Under this heading we will consider all the different operations 
which have to be executed on the vine itself, from the time it begins 
to bud in the spring till vintage time. These comprise ordinary- 
operations, such as disbudding, topping, and tying up, which are 
practised in most, if not all, of our Victorian vineyards, and some others 
which might with advantage be executed in special cases, if the 
augmentation in the crop due to them were sufficient to justify the 
employment of the extra labour necessary for their execution. Such 
operations as nipping off the tops of the young shoots, or making an 
annular incision round them, with the view of preventing the non- 
setting of the flowers, or stripping off the leaves to afford greater 
facilities for the ripening of the fruit, come under the latter heading. 

Disbudding, as the name implies, consists in removing all unneces- 
sary buds as soon as they have burst out into leaf. All shoots having 
no fruit on them, and which are not necessary to provide wood for the 
ensuing pruning, should be removed when they are from four to six 
inches long, or as soon as it can be ascertained with certainty that 
they bear no fruit, as at this time they can be removed with ease. If 
they have attained a considerable size before removal, this would 
entail a waste of energy to the plant, which ought to be avoided. It 
is also difficult to break them off without wounding to some extent 
the wood of the vine on which they grow. Sometimes two shoots 
grow out of the same bud. If this be a bud which was intended to 
produce a shoot to be utilized at the next dry pruning the weaker 
one of the two should be removed, otherwise they may both be left, 
that is, if both show fruit. 

When disbudding, it is important to make provision for replacing 
arms which, by continual or faulty pruning, have become too long. 
With this object a few shoots (one or two) ought to be left at the 
base of such an arm, which may be cut back to one eye at pruning 
time, as has already been explained (p. 114). 


The importance of disbudding varies with the climate and the kind 
of vine grown. As a rule, the colder the climate the greater the 
necessity for this operation. If we examine what is done in Europe 
we will find that, in the cold districts of Canton de Vaud (Switzerland), 
Burgundy, and Champagne, it is always carefully executed, whilst in 
many of the warm parts of Southern France (corresponding to our 
third and the warmer parts of our second region), it is entirely 
neglected even in well-managed vineyards. The question of the 
proper ripening of the fruit governs this operation. In a cold climate 
the extra shade is a drawback ; in a warm one it is an advantage. 

Certain sorts require disbudding far more than others. Those 
which send out shoots from all parts of the vine should be submitted 
to this treatment under any circumstances, whilst such sorts as only 
send out a limited number of shoots where no buds were left need 
only be disbudded in a cool climate. The Pinots (Burgundy), Gamay, 
Gouais, and many others, belong to the first type, and ought always 
to be disbudded, whilst such sorts as Shiraz (Red Hermitage), 
Chasselas, Tokay, &c., do not require so much care in this direction. 

Certain conditions may modify the above directions. If strong 
winds are to be feared early in the season, it will be better not to 
disbud until the dangerous time has passed. If the winds occur later, 
it is better to leave the disbudding till the vines are fit to be tied up. 

As disbudding weakens the vine it is a good preventative of the 
non-setting of the flowers, and ought to be rigorously carried out in 
districts where this is to be feared. 

Topping consists in cutting or breaking off the shoots of the vine 
from time to time, in order to enable air to circulate freely among the 
vines, and to render summer cultivation possible. Although applied 
to vines trained in all manner of ways, those trained gooseberry-bush 
style are topped more than the others, as, having no support, they are 
more liable to spread in all directions, so as to hinder summer 

The operation is very simple, and consists in trimming the vine to 
the required size with a sickle or large knife. A broken scythe-blade, 
about twelve or fifteen inches in length, fitted to a handle, is very 
suitable for this purpose. 

As is the case for disbudding, only in a far greater degree, topping 
is of more importance in a cold than in a warm climate. In the 


former all that is possible should be done to promote the ripening; of 
the grapes, whilst in the latter they easily get over-ripe. 

In the warmer parts of Victoria vines are extensively trained goose- 
berry style, and topped in an excessive manner, the idea of the vine- 
growers being that, by removing the extremities of the shoots, they 
strengthen the vine. No more fatal error could be made. As we saw 
(p. 11), the greater part of the solid substance of the vine is derived 
from the air by the green leaves; it stands to reason that by continually 
removing the fresh leaves the plant must eventually suffer consider- 
able injury. Although vines topped even to a considerable extent 
may for the first year give excellent results, both as regards quantity 
and quality, they will gradually lose their vigour, and after a few 
years appear to be completely exhausted. The following passage 
from Dr. G-uyot's work, " Culture de la Vigne et Vinification," amply 
proves this. He says : " If one tops all the shoots of a vine evenly, 
without allowing any to extend as a long shoot, all the bunches 
succeed well, and the crop is abundant the first year, if the number 
of branches does not exceed that which the vine ought to bear ; the 
second year the bunches are scarcer, looser, and smaller ; the third 
year the vine has lost some of its vigour, and its buds are almost 
sterile. It remains in this state the following years, and only 
resumes its fertility when, by ceasing to top, it is allowed to renovate 
itself. The more vigourous the vine which is topped the more 
rapidly will it become sterile. It has occurred to me to see under 
these conditions the second buds develop with energy, and carry 
away the bunches in an exaggerated vegetation, in spite of a second 
topping executed on them ; this topping which, when practised 
partially and only on one or two special branches of the vine, opposes 
itself to all non-setting of the fruit, becomes sometimes a cause 
of non-setting if applied to the entire vine, but in every case absolute 
and repeated topping ^becomes a cause of sterilization and final 

Dr. Guyot recommends topping to be only executed on the fruit 
branch left according to his system of pruning (Fig. 38 p.,1 17), the two 
shoots growing off the wood spur being tied to a stake, and allowed 
to fully develop themselves. 

This would be impossible on vines trained gooseberry-bush style, 
for which reason the system is not to be recommended in the warm 


districts of the colony. The poor yield of our vineyards, compared to 
that obtained in Southern France, is probably due to the excessive 
topping practised, especially in the warmer parts. 

I have observed many cases in which blocks of vines trained 
gooseberry style, which had almost ceased to be productive, and only 
produced miserable shoots scarcely worth leaving at pruning time, 
resumed their vigour and bore good crops when staked and the 
shoots allowed to grow. 

In the south of France many vineyards are simply pruned in winter, 
and neither disbudded, topped, nor tied up to stakes or wires, but 
allowed to grow wild, so to speak, with the result that enormous 
crops of good wine are obtained from them. The shoots and leaves 
spreading in all directions protect the fruit from the burning rays of 
the sun, and at the same time shelter the soil and keep it cool, thereby 
hindering the excessive evaporation of moisture. In addition to 
these advantages, by forming a sort of network, the vines protect 
each other from the effects of high winds. The evidence given by 
witnesses before the Royal Commission on Vegetable Products also 
tends to prove this. 

If the excessive growth of weeds is to be feared, it will be better to 
train the vines on stakes or wires, as this will render cultivation 
possible at any time. 

In spite of these manifest disadvantages, the gooseberry system has 
something to recommend it, as it renders economy, both of labour and 
stakes, possible, so that in poorer soils, where the vines grow with 
medium vigour, it may be tolerated. Not more than one topping in a 
season should be given, and the shoots should be cut at least four 
leaves above the last bunch. Unless this is done there will not be 
enough leaves left upon the plant to provide for the necessary accumu- 
lation of reserve materials in the buds for the ensuing year after the 
elaboration of the crop of grapes. If care be observed in these points, 
the diminution in crop may be so small as to be compensated for by 
the greater facilities of cultivation, &c. It would be well to allow a 
portion of the vineyard to grow wild every year say one-fifth so 
that in five years the whole vineyard will have had time to completely 
regenerate itself. This reminds one of the precept in the Bible, 
Exodus xxiii. 10, 11, wherein it is ordained to cultivate the vineyard 
and olive ground for six years, and leave it alone the seventh. 


Tying up must be had recourse to in all cases where the vines are 
not trained gooseberry style or let to grow wild ; it necessitates the 
employment of some support to tie the vine to, which may consist of 
either wire or stakes. The suitability of either of these is decided, 
as we saw in the preceding chapter, by the mode of pruning 
adopted ; the only method admitting of either sort of support being 
employed is that illustrated in Fig. 41, where it will be readily under- 
stood that, if the vines are staked, the rod or leader must be brought 
round and tied down to the crown, whilst if trained on wire it may be 
tied along it. 

With this mode of pruning, it becomes a question of expense which 
method of training be adopted. The absolute cost of either depends 
upon a variety of circumstances, such as proximity to good timber, 
facilities for carting, wire, &c., &e. The relative cost, however, is 
more easily stated, and depends chiefly upon the distance apart at 
which the vines are planted. Under ordinary circumstances, with 
vines planted at 5 feet x 5 feet, stakes will cost almost twice as much 
as wire ; at 7 feet x 7 feet, the expense will be almost the same in 
each case ; whilst at 10 feet x 10 feet, wire will cost considerably more 
than stakes. The cost of cultivation with stakes is naturally less than 
would be the case with the wire. With the former this can be 
executed entirely by horse labour in two perpendicular directions, 
whilst with the latter there will always be a narrow band of soil 
between the rows, which must be cultivated by hand labour. 

Whether tied to stakes or wire, the tying should be done as early 
as possible, so as to give the leaves time to grow in all directions and 
completely protect the berries from the sun. In warm climates great 
damage is done by postponing the tying until the fruit is of the size 
of large shot ; the sudden exposure to the sun's rays causes them to be 
scorched, and thus injures both the quality and quantity of the crop. 
Vines should be tied up, especially in a warm climate, as soon as the 
flowering is over and the fruit properly set. 

The material used for tying vines is not of great importance, the 
cheapest being the best. In districts where rushes are to be found 
growing on river flats they will be very useful, and may be cut, dried, 
and stacked away during the slack time after the vintage. The men 
may be employed to cut and trim them on wet days during the winter 
when no other work can be done. Before employing rushes to tie up 


vines they should be soaked in water for a day or two, in order to 
render them soft and pliable, as in the dry state they are very brittle, 
and snap off easily. If no rushes can be obtained, a good substitute 
will be found in rye-straw; an acre or so of rye, according to the size 
of the vineyard, may be sown for the purpose. New Zealand flax 
(Phormium Tenax) will also be found useful. A knife, with four 
or five blades about one-third of an inch apart, will enable a leaf to be 
cut into a large number of strips with ease. 

After the vines are tied, the shoots will probably continue to grow 
the extremities above the stakes may be cut off, although this should 
not be done too often. Good strong stakes should be employed, pre- 
ferably made of split timber, not less than 2 inches square, and of 
sufficient height to allow a considerable amount of growth above the 
crown of the vine ; if this be 2 feet above the surface, the stakes 
should not be less than 4ft. Gin. above the ground, which will 
necessitate their being oft. 6in. to 6 feet in length. Vine-stakes 
of stringybark, messmate, or box timber of the above dimensions, 
tarred or charred at the lower extremity before being driven into the 
soil, ought to last in good condition for fourteen or sixteen years. 
In France it is customary to draw and stack the stakes during the 
winter, but of course expense of labour renders such a course 
impracticable in Australia. Tying to wire rs practically the same as 
tying to stakes, and needs no detailed description; the shoots are tied 
together in two or more small bundles, and not tied separately. 

Nipping off the terminal bud of a shoot or Pincement, as it is 
termed in French resembles ordinary topping in many respects, but 
differs from it chiefly in being executed before the flowering ; it is 
executed in many parts of France upon the fruit-bearing shoots as a 
preventative of the non-setting of the blossom. It is also had recourse 

FIG. 44. 

to as a supplement to the system of pruning employed in the Bordeaux 
district, which will be readily understood by reference to Fig. 44. 


This is similar to the mode of pruning illustrated in Figs. 39, 40, 
but differs from it in there being no short or wood spur left at the 
base of the long or fruit rod ; the shoots resulting from the develop- 
ment of a and/* will pro vide fresh fruit rods for the ensuing year. As 
we saw Cp. 116), under ordinary circumstances these buds would not 
develop themselves ; only those in c, d, e, h, and t would produce 
shoots fit to form leaders. By carefully nipping these before flowering 
time their growth is slightly checked, and the buds a and /, which 
would otherwise have remained latent, are caused to give rise to two 
shoots which will constitute leaders for the next year. This system 
gives good results in France, but the difficulty of executing this 
nipping at a proper time and manner on a large scale in a country 
where skilled vignerons are scarce renders it unsuitable for Australia. 
The nipping of fruit shoots on vines trained on wire in the ordinary 
way might with advantage be practised on sorts which are liable to 
set badly at flowering time, a week or so before this important function 
takes place, should the benefit derived from it justify the extra 
expense it would entail. 

Annular Incision. Although this cannot be recommended as one 
of the ordinary vineyard operations, it deserves mention, and might in 
certain cases be employed with advantage. Its object is to prevent 
the non-setting of the flowers, and it consists in removing a ring of 
bark, as narrow as possible, from the base of a fruit-bearing shoot, just 
before flowering ; or in removing a similar ring of bark before the end 
of the winter from near the base of the leader which is to bear the 
fruit-growing shoots. It seems to act, like most other operations 
which tend to diminish the non-setting, by weakening the vine, and 
should not be too extensively practised. It presents the disadvantage 
of rendering shoots thus treated very liable to break off under the 
influence of wind. 

Although the operation may be performed with a small pruning- 
knife, special instruments are manufactured for the purpose, with 
which it is possible to treat many vines in a short time. On the 
whole, although good results have resulted from this operation, it is 
not employed anywhere on a large scale. 

Stripping the leaves of the vine before vintage time, so as to 
facilitate the ripening of the grapes, is never necessary in either the 
second or third regions of the colony ; in the cooler parts of the first 


it may, unexceptional cases, be employed with advantage. The leaves 
should only be removed a few days before the complete maturity of 
the fruit, otherwise it will be very liable to be hardened and burnt by 
the sun. Foex recommends to only tear off the limb or flat part of 
the leaf, leaving the petiole or leaf stalk in its place, in order to allow 
the fruit to profit by the materials contained in it, as well as to pre- 
vent wounding the shoot bearing the fruit, which may be required for 
pruning. In no case in Australia would it be beneficial to remove 
more than one-half or two-thirds of the leaves on a vine. 




The surface of a vineyard must be kept in a thoroughly loose 
condition ; we have already seen that the ground must be properly 
loosened to a considerable depth before planting ; it must also be 
kept in a loose state as much as possible, and no agent is more 
powerful in this direction than thorough cultivation of the surface. 
If the surface be kept loose, the lower layers will not settle down to 
the same extent as would otherwise be the case. In addition to this, 
cultivation is necessary in order to destroy the weeds, which grow 
with great ease in most vineyards, with detrimental influence to the 
vines near them. 

The different cultural operations which should be performed in 
a vineyard may be grouped as summer and winter cultivations. 

The winter cultivation is the most important, and has for its primary 
object the proper aeration of the soil. This acts beneficially in 
a variety of ways, but chiefly in rendering many mineral substances 
more soluble, and therefore more readily assimilable than would 
otherwise be the case; this cultivation should preferably be executed 
with the plough, as by turning the soil upside down greater facilities 
are afforded for its thorough aeration. 

The depth of this ploughing should not be too considerable, as it 
would be liable to injure the tender absorbent rootlets of the vine ; 
as these do not, and should not, come so near the surface in a dry as 
in a moist climate, it follows that the winter cultivation should be 
deeper in the former than in the latter case. In a general way 
it should vary between 4 and 6 inches 4 inches in a cold, and 6 inches 
in a warm dry district. The best means of executing this ploughing 
varies according to circumstances. If excessive moisture during the 
winter is to be feared, the ground should be gathered up to the vines 
on each side, so as to leave a furrow down the centre of the row by 
which the surface water may run off. If too much moisture is not to 
be feared, this will not be necessary, and the soil may be ploughed in 


whatever way is most convenient. In many parts of France it 
is customary to gather the soil in the centre of the rows towards the 
latter part of the winter, the band of soil left along the row between 
the vines being drawn into the centre with hoes or other hand imple- 
ments. This baring of the stems of the vines exposes larvae of 
insects to the action of frost, &c., and enables all suckers or weeds to 
be removed with ease. As it must be done by hand labour, it is not 
to be recommended in Australia, more especially as the advantages to 
be derived from it would not be likely to repay the extra cost. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge upon the different rules to be observed 
in ploughing, such as only moving the soil when in a fit condition, 
and not when wet and liable to form into lumps. These points are 
well known to practical farmers, and as for those who are as yet 
inexperienced, they will obtain better information from a practical 
ploughman on the subject than could be expressed in many pages of 
a book. 

As far as implements are concerned, much the same thing may be 
said. In stiff soils ploughs with a long mould-board, capable of com- 
pletely turning the sod, will be found to give the best results, whilst 
in loose or sandy soils short mould-boards may be used with advantage. 
It is unnecessary to say that wherever possible two or preferably 
three furrow ploughs should be employed. 

Summer Cultivation. The object of summer cultivation is two- 
fold. First, to keep the vines clear of weeds; and second, by keeping 
the surface in a thoroughly loose condition, to insure the retention of 
a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil during the dry weather. 
The effect of a loose surface in checking evaporation is enormous. 
If the surface becomes compact and hard, it in reality consists of an 
innumerable number of small interstices, communicating with each 
other so as to form fine channels, which acting by capillary attrac- 
tion, like the wick of a lamp, draw the moisture up from the lower 
layers of soil, and allow it to freely evaporate into the air. Surface 
cultivation breaks up these fine continuous channels, and checks the 
loss of moisture. Mulching or covering with sand or gravel acts in a 
similar manner. It is a well-known fact that soil under a small heap 
of straw is always cool and moist. Mulching with straw has many 
disadvantages ; amongst others it presents a harbour for a host of 
noxious insects and interferes with ploughing, which, as we have 

K 2 


seen, is necessary for the aeration of the soil. It is, therefore, best to 
mulch with soil, or in other words, to thoroughly cultivate the surface, 
unless in the case mentioned in the previous chapter, where the vines 
are allowed to grow wild during the summer, and where the large 
number of leaves protecting the surface of the soil and keeping it 
cool prevent excessive evaporation. 

In all other cases thorough cultivation must be resorted to. More 
especially is this the case if vines be irrigated. As with other plants, 
a thorough surface cultivation must follow every application of water, 
without which no good results can follow from it. 

The summer cultivations should always be executed with scarifiers, 
grubbers, or cultivators, of which there are an immense variety of 
types, some more suitable than others for certain descriptions of soils. 
It is unnecessary for us here to describe any of these implements; 
those which break the ground most thoroughly and leave it in the 
finest state of division are the best. As the summer cultivations 
only require to be superficial not exceeding 3 inches or so in depth 
the implements should be chosen accordingly. 

The first of these cultivations should take place early in the spring, 
before the buds begin to burst, and should level all the ridges caused 
by the winter ploughing. If the vines are not trellised, but planted 
either on the square or quincunx system more than 5 feet apart, a 
very simple way of levelling will be to run a light single-furrow 
plough without a wheel at right angles (or at 60 if it be the quincunx 
system) to the direction of the winter ploughing; this furrow, in the 
centre of the row, will allow the wheel and front tooth of the scarifier 
to pass evenly along, whilst the other teeth tear and level the soil 
completely in all directions. 

If the vines are trained on wires, it will be advisable to level the soil 
to some extent with a couple of furrows in each row, run in whichever 
direction may be required before proceeding to employ the scarifier. 
Of course the baud of soil along the wires must be broken up by hand 
labour, either with spade or hoe, the latter being preferable. The 
number of summer cultivations necessary is very variable, and, as a 
rule, is regulated to a great extent by the growth of weeds; the 
amount of cultivation required to keep these down is usually more 
than would be absolutely necessary for the maintenance of the sur- 
face in a proper state. Persons who are so fortunate as not to be 


troubled with weeds will find it greatly to their advantage to give 
two or three good scarifyings during the course of: the summer. 

Cultivation may be proceeded with at any time when the soil is in 
a fit state, except when late frosts are to be feared, or at flowering 
time. The stirring of the soil reducing the temperature of the air, is 
liable to be attended with unfavorable results at these times. 




Although grafting is an operation which, it might seem, ought not 
to be required on a properly laid-out young vineyard, yet this hand- 
book would be incomplete without a brief chapter devoted to the 
subject, more especially as it may often be found very useful to graft 
a few vines of a vineyard. 

It is naturally better that the most suitable sorts should be planted 
in the first place, so that it will subsequently prove unnecessary to 
change them, but this is not always an easy matter, especially in a 
new district where the vine has not been cultivated before, and where, 
under the peculiar circumstances of the locality, one sort may prove 
so far superior to the others as to render it advantageous to replace 
them either completely or partially by it. Grafting enables this to 
be done without the loss of three or four years' crop, which rooting 
out and replanting would necessarily entail. 

Another case in which grafting is employed must also be mentioned, 
but it is to be hoped that we may never be obliged to have recourse 
to it on this account. This is the rafting of European sorts on 
phylloxera-resistant American stocks. The American vines, although 
phylloxera resistant, with very few exceptions produce wine of totally 
different character to the different " cepages" of the V. Vinifera 
(European sorts). By grafting the latter upon the former we have a 
solution to the difficulty, which has already enabled European vine- 
growers to reconstitute to a great extent the millions of acres which 
were destroyed by the pest. 

In addition to these cases, grafting often has a truly beneficial 
effect in making a vine bear more regularly and in diminishing the 
non-setting of the fruit, chiefly because the joint, presenting a certain 
opposition to the flow of the sap, weakens the vine to some extent in 
the same manner as late pruning, the annular incision, &c., which, as 


we have already seen, are means of combating the non-setting of the 

I, myself, have had practical experience of some vines of Cabernet- 
Saiivignon grafted on Miller's Burgundy (Pinot Meunier) stocks, 
which set their fruit far better than similar vines growing on their own 
roots. Some authors go so far as to say that Cabernet grafted on 
Cabernet, or any sort on a stock of the same sort as itself, will bear 
better than growing on its own roots. 

It has been found that the Malbec, which, as we have already seen, 
is very liable to set its fruit badly, gives far better crops when 
grafted on some American sorts, especially the Solonis (a variety of 
V. Riparia). 

The above are examples in which grafting is attended with bene- 
ficial results, but this is not always the case. If the stock and scion 
do not suit each other the results may be disastrous. As an example, 
a case may be mentioned which came under my notice of some Shiraz 
(Red Hermitage) grafted, through a mistake of the vigneron, upon 
some vines of Pinot Blanc. Although the grafts took perfectly, the 
resulting vines were absolutely sterile, and never had a single bunch 
upon them, even ten years after the execution of the operation, besides 
which they did not ripen their wood till two months later than the 
other vines of the vineyard, the extremities of the shoots sometimes 
remaining herbaceous throughout the whole winter. Some Chasselas 
grafted on similar stocks in the same block were very successful, bore 
large crops of grapes, and ripened their wood thoroughly every year. 
A general rule often given by practical vignerons is to graft red sorts 
upon red, and white upon white. It will be observed that the case 
mentioned above was a departure from this rule. 

The enumeration of the different American stocks suitable for 
grafting with such-and-such a European sort would lead us too far. 
It will suffice to say that the scion and stock should as much as 
possible be growers of similar vigour, a weak grafted on an extremely 
vigorous one, or vice versa, being most liable to give unsatisfactory 

The different methods of grafting vines are extremely numerous 
and varied. Want of space renders it impossible for us to describe 
them all; we shall limit ourselves to two methods which are applicable 
in different cases. Whatever be the method of grafting adopted, it is 


absolutely indispensable tbat the cambium, or generative, layer, situated 
between the bark and the wood of both scion and stock, should 
coincide in at least one point; the greater the length through which 
this contact takes place the better. If this condition be not properly 
fulfilled the graft will not take. 

First. Ordinary cleft graft, applicable when the diameters of stock 
and scion are different. 

Second. English cleft graft, which can only be employed when the 
stock and scion are of the same diameter, as would be the case when 
grafting young-rooted American vines with European scions. 

Ordinary cleft graft. This is the most common and simplest 
method of grafting, and is so well known as to scarcelyfneed descrip- 
tion. Reference to Fig. 45 will enable the process k to be readily 

FIG. 45. 

understood. The stock is cut off horizontally, and in as clean a 
manner as possible, 4 inches* or so below the surface, with a small 
saw. A clean cleft is made with a chisel or pruning knife, which 
should preferably not extend right across the diameter of the stem. 
The sides are cut clean with a sharp knife, and a small slip of wood 
may be removed in order to allow the scion to be properly placed 
with ease, and the cleft is kept open with a wedge made for the 
purpose. The scion, consisting of a well-ripened shoot of the year, 

* If a V. Vinifera is to be grafted on an American stock in a phylloxera - 
infested district the stock should be cut off as near the surface as possible, so as 
to prevent the scion forming roots of its own later on, which would expose it to 
suffer from the attacks of the insect. 


cut to three eyes, should be cut at its base, as illustrated in Fig. 46 ; 

that is, wedge-shaped, with the inner side narrower than the outer 
one. It is inserted into the cleft, care being taken that the 
cambium layers coincide, and the wedge carefully withdrawn ; 
the stock will then hold the scion tightly, and all that will be 
necessary will be to surround it with grafting wax or clay. 
Should the cleft have been made too 'deep, or the stock be 
rather weak, this will have to be tied, so as to insure the 
scion being held firmly in its place. The operation properly 
accomplished, the soil which was removed should be replaced 
and preferably heaped up round the scion, as represented in 
Fig. 45. 

In order to insure contact between the cambium layers 
of the stock and scion it is recommended to slightly incline 
the latter, so that there may be a certainty of their cutting 
each other, and thus being in contact in two points, one on 

FIG 6 

It is evident that this system of grafting may also be made use 
of if stock and scion are both of the same size. In such a case the 
cleft should be made right across the stock, and the scion cut to a 
wedge of the same thickness on each side, but, as a rule, the 
English cleft or splice graft will give more satisfactory results in 
such a case, 

This method of grafting will be understood by reference to Fig. 47. 
Both stock and scion are cut obliquely at the same angle, and a 
longitudinal slit is made very slightly above the centre of the 
first section, so that with a slight pressure one can be made 
to slide into the other, as represented in Fig. 47. The stock 
and scion should be carefully fitted together, so as to render 
the binding of the joint with string or other substance 
unnecessary. In order that this should be the case both 
stock and scion must be cut in exactly similar manner, so 
that when put together no spaces where there is not contact 
between the two may be found. 

This is the mode of grafting most extensively employed 
for grafting European sorts on phylloxera-proof American 
stocks. It gives excellent results. The cambium layers of 
FIG. 47. stock and scion meeting in several places, a thorough joint 


is made, which only weakens the resulting vine to an insignificant 

In France whole nurseries of cuttings are sometimes planted out 
already grafted, the cuttings striking and the graft taking simul- 
taneously. Although a convenient process as it may be executed 
during wet weather in a shed or other sheltered place on an average 
only about 25 per cent, of these grafted cuttings strike; and, even 
to obtain these, great care must be taken, frequent waterings and 
weeding being necessary. 

The best time for grafting is in early spring, just when the sap has 
started to rise with vigour and the first leaves have come out. This 
time varies according to the climate, but, as a rule, may be said to be 
about the month of October. In the drier parts of the colony it will 
be well to graft somewhat earlier, to avoid the desiccation of the scion, 
which might otherwise ensue. In the cooler parts it will be better to 
postpone the operation for a couple of weeks, to avoid the risk of 
decay through excessive moisture. 

As a rule, it is best to graft a late on an early variety, as the rise 
of sap of the former causes the union between the two to effect itself 
before any leaves have made their appearance. The vessels of the 
stem are given time to prepare themselves for the supply of the sap 
rendered necessary by the transpiration of the leaves. 

As this is not always possible, and it may even be necessary to 
graft an early on a late sort, it is advisable to stratify the cuttings 
intended to be used as scions in the same way as ordinary cuttings 
until the time for grafting has arrived. 

It will be superfluous to insist that scions should always be chosen 
with as much, if not more, care than ordinary cuttings. The same 
rules are to be observed in the selection of each. 

During the summer following the operation care should be taken 
to remove any suckers growing from the stock, or, if grafting on 
phylloxera-resistant stocks, any roots growing from the base of the 

The value of different stocks is a subject upon which much has 
been said, and opinions vary greatly. The following extract from 
the " Cour Complet de Viticulture," the valuable work of Foex, the 
director of the Agricultural College of Montpellier (France), will 
throw some light upon the question. He says: " All the American 


' cepages ' are not of the same value as regards the chances of their 
successful grafting. The one of which the greatest number of 
grafts take is the Vialla ; next to it come York Madeira, Jacquez, 
and Taylor ; then Vitis Rupestris, and the wild V. Riparias. The 
latter, after being planted out for two years, are refractory to graft. 
Lastly, the Solonis, which is the most difficult of those usually 
employed. The question of the accommodation of different stocks 
to different ' cepages ' used to graft on them is as yet very imperfectly 
known, and only seems to be of slight interest from a practical 
point of view. The majority of stocks employed so far seem to 
unite equally well with the different types grafted upon them, and to 
nourish them equally well. Some people believe to have observed 
that the Aramon succeeds particularly well on the Clinton, and the 
Bouschet Hybrids upon the Jacquez." 



ABSTRACT of Evidence taken by the Royal Commission on Vegetable 
Products, giving the opinions of the witnesses upon some debatable 
points relating to Viticulture. 


The Hon. Peter Laurence Van der Byl, Cape*Colony. 
279. Irrigation does not interfere with the quality of the wine, 
whilst crops of 2,000 gallons per acre are obtained with its aid. 

Adolf W. Fox, Emu Creek. 

2958. Irrigation would double the yield in the Bendigo district, 
and improve the quality. Would gladly give 2 per acre for irriga- 

Wm. Graham, Rutherglen. 

6923. Would gladly irrigate if water was available. It would 
improve the quality, as natural rainfall is sometimes deficient. 

Henry Petersen, Emu Creek. 

2939. Irrigation would enable much land to be devoted to viti- 
culture which is now lying idle. 

G. S. Smith, Wahgunyah. 
7447. Intends to try irrigation on his vineyard. 

Angela G. D. JBernacchi, Maria Island. 

10097. Irrigation is practised in some Italian vineyards, but is not 
to be recommended. The yield is largely increased, but the quality 
deteriorated, even if the water is only applied in winter. 

Jas. Bladier. 

3020. Emphatically condemns irrigation of vineyards. Says no 
vines are irrigated in France. Mentions case of Frenchman at 
Wahgunyah who irrigated vines, but lost most of the crop through 
oidium and black spot. 


Alfred Biisse, Barnawatha. 
6473. Does not believe in irrigation for vines. 

Robert Turner, Rutherglen. 
7109. Does not irrigate his vines, but irrigates other crops. 


Hubert de Castella, St. Huberts, Lillydale. 

4276. The land ought to be subsoiled before being planted. If 
it be very loose, a simple ploughing may give good results, but it is 
better to subsoil. The subsoil must not be brought to the surface. 

G. B. Federli. 

10418. Considers that soil should be deeply worked, but subsoil 
left where it is. 

Hugh Fraser, Brown's Plains. 
6811. Subsoiled his land before planting. 

Wm. Graham, Rutherglen. 

6853. Subsoils the land with two ploughs, the second one only 
loosening the subsoil without turning it over. If the subsoil be 
brought to the surface the vines do not come to maturity so soon. 
The soil is made cold, and cuttings are more liable to miss. 

C. H. Morris, Brown's Plains. 

6750. Brought the subsoil to the surface when planting his 
vineyard, but is of opinion that it is better to simply stir it, leaving 
it where it is. 

Thos. A. Rattray, Tahbilk. 

7538. Subsoils the land with two ploughs following each other, 
but does not bring the subsoil to the surface. 

Alfred Biisse, Barnawatha. 

6452. Trenches the land from 18 to 20 inches with a trench 

Hon. Peter Laurence Van der Byl, Cape Colony. 
329. Trenches the ground by hand to a depth of 2 feet if the soil 
be poor; if it be rich, simply ploughs it. 

Robert Caughey, Gooramadda. 

7300. Believes in bringing the subsoil to the surface ; it keeps 
the vineyard cleaner for the time, and vines do better. 


F. G. Docker, Bontherambo. 

8617. Hand-trenched one portion of the vineyard and plough- 
trenched the other. 

J. P. H. Gherig, Barnawatha. 

6539. Prefers hand-trenching, but it does not pay. Two ploughs 
do very well ; bringing the subsoil to the top is the best, although in 
some sorts of soil it might make the ground sour. 

Hans Larsen, Gannawarra. 

5260. Necessity for trenching through clay till sandy subsoil is 

J. H. Smithy North Barnawatha. 

6654. Trenches to depth of 15 to 18 inches, bringing subsoil to 
the top with a specially made double-furrow plough. 

Robert Turner, Rutherglen. 
7084. Plough-trenches the ground intended for vines. 

The following witnesses consider both subsoiling and trenching 
unnecessary : 

D. G. Hamilton, Rutherglen. 

7411. Is of opinion that a simple ploughing 7 or 8 inches deep is 
sufficient preparation. His soil is a clayey loam with ironstone 

Thos. Hardy, South Australia. 

17. Of late has abandoned trenching, rinding it to be unnecessary; 
simply ploughs to depth of 6 inches. The soil is of a loose character. 

G. S. Smith, Wahgunyah. 

7482. Simply ploughed the ground to a depth of 10 inches. The 
soil is sandy. 


The following distances apart were recommended : 

Alfred Biisse, Barnawatha. 
6455. 7x7. 

Hon. P. L. Van der Byl, Cape Colony. 
340. 4 x 4, 5 x 5, or 6 x 6. 

Hubert de Castella, St. Huberts, Lillydale. 
4336. On the Yarra, 5 x 5; on the Murray, 8x8. 

Alex. Caughey, Gooramadda. 
7296. On wires, 10 x 4; where staked, 8x8. 



F. G. Docker, Bontherambo. 
8614. Has vines at 6 x 6, but prefers 8x8. 

Richard Dods, Marong. 
2689. 9x9. 

G. B. Federli. 

10421. 8 x 8 or 10 x 10. 

Hugh Fraser, Brown's Plains. 
6820. 7 x 7, but 8 x 8 is preferable. 

J. P. H. Gherig, Barnawatba. 
6550. Not less tban 8 x 8, 10 x 10 is preferable. 

Wm. Graham, Rutberglen. 
6857. Planted formerly at 8 x 8, but prefers 10 x 10. 

Thos Hardy, South Australia. 
66. 12 x 20 for currants, 8 x 10 for wine grapes. 

L. Levin, Rutherglen. 
7182. 8x8. 

C. H. Morris, Brown's Plains. 
6759. Prefers 8 x 8 to 10 x 10. 

T. A. Eattray, Tahbilk. 
7538. 4x4 too close. The proper distance is 10 x 8 or 10 x 10. 

Camille Reau, Wahgunyah. 
7235. Planted at 5 x 5, but prefers 8 x 8 or 10 x 10. 

J. H. Smith, North Barnawatha. 

6652. Plants 10 x 5, and roots out every other one later on, so 
as to make it 10 x 10. 

Robert Turner, Rutherglen. 
7155. 10 x 10. 

G. S. Smith, Wahgunyah. 

7494. 8x8. 


Alfred Biisse, Barnawatha. 

6459. Prefers cuttings, as once they strike they grow quicker 
than the rooted vine, which has to form new roots after transplanting. 

Hon. P. L. Van der Byl, Cape Colony. 
336. Plant cuttings in preference to rooted vines. 


R. Caughey, Gooramadda. 

7341. In a favorable season prefers cuttings, but rooted vines 
are less liable to miss. 

J. P. H. Gherig, Barnawatha. 

6562. Prefers cuttings to rooted vines if circumstances are 
favorable, as they overtake the rooted vines the second year. 

Wm. Graham, Rutherglen. 

6869. Prefers cuttings, as in a fair season they are just as good 
as rooted vines. 

D. G. Hamilton, Rutherglen. 
7412. Decidedly approves of cuttings in planting a large vineyard, 

Camille Reau, Wahgunyah. 

7235. Plant 5 x 10 with cuttings; root out every second vine 
later on, which can be employed to fill up misses. 


Hubert de Castella, St. Huberts, Lillydale. 

4282. Thinks one-year-old rooted vines are the best, as they are 
more certain to grow. Has seen three-year-old rooted vines produce 
as good vines as those planted as cuttings. 

Thos. Hardy, South Australia. 
20. Always plants rooted vines. 

G. W. Knight, Bendigo. 

9380. Rooted vines are to be preferred to cuttings, as they are 
far more certain to grow, especially in the northern districts. 

C. H. Morris, Brown's Plains. 

6765. Thinks cuttings better than rooted vines, but recommends 
the latter and employs them himself. 

Thos. A. Rattray, Tahbilk. 

7538. Certainly prefers rooted vines to cuttings, as they save a 

G. S. Smith, Wahgunyah. 

7488. Has employed both systems ; the rooted vines are a cer- 

J. H. Smith, Barnawatha. 

6659. Prefers rooted vines ; not that there is any advantage after 
the plant has grown, but they are safer to take in the first go off. 




[MAY, 1891.] 


Adams, Henry ... 
Allan, E. 

Anderson, E. W. N. 
Angas, J. H. 
Angus and Robertson 
Arapiles Shire Council 

Barlow, John B. 
Barlow, W. A. ... 
Battallani, Jos. ... 
Battersby, D. ... 
Bavay, A. de 
Bennett, J. 
Bernacchi, A. G D. 
Blayney, Thos. 
Borelli, J. B. 
Berwick, G. E. 
Borwick, W. H. 
Bowness, E. 
Boys, Wallace R. 
Bradbury, S. 
Bradshaw, Thos. 
Bragato, Romeo 
Brenzing, Ernest 
Bristow, G. B. N. 
Bruhn, Albert ... 
Brunning, William 
Buchanan, Hon. J. 
Buckland, Henry 
Buckley, Allan K. 
Burrough, G. C. 
Biisse, F.,and Sons 
Busst, C. J. 

Campbell, John 
Carolin, J. P. ... 
Castella, Francois de 
Cassuben Bros. ... 
Caughey, A. 
Christians, Wm. 
Clarke, Hen. 
Clennett, W. P. 
Clifford, M. H. ... 
Cook, G. J. 
Cook, W. F. 
Cook, James 
Cook, Saml. 
Cooper, James ... 


Deep Lead, Wimmera. 
Yates' Seed Farm, Otahuhu, Auckland. 
Trymple, Mildura. 
Currie-street, Adelaide, S.A. . 
110 Market-street, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Retreat Vineyard, Barnawartha. 

Vigneron, 109 Pitt-street, Sydney. 

Carmanual Creek, Dunolly. 


Victoria Brewery, E. Melbourne. 


Maria Island, Tasmania. 


Panton Hill. 

Mount Caraunya Vineyard, Dookie. 


217 Heidelberg-road, Clifton Hill. 

Swan Hill. 

London, care of McLean Bros, and Rigg. 

Bamawm, Rochester. 

Board of Viticulture. 


Vineyard Co., Stawell. 

Emu Vineyard, Emu Creek. 

Somerville, Hastings. 





Burrabunnia, Barnawartha. 




Board of Viticulture. 

Deep Lead, Wimmera. 

Mount Prior Vineyard, Gooramadda. 

Lake Rowan. 

Lunatic Asylum, Ararat. 

Port Esperance, Tasmania. 

45 Queen-street. 

Savings Bank, Melbourne. 

The Grange, Narre Warren. 

Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 

Axe Creek, Axedale. 

Upper Black Dog Creek, Chiltern. 



Cor mack, A. 
Cottnan, H. 
Craike, Thos. ... 
Crellin Bros. ... 
Cruikshank, Geo. 
Curtain, John ... 

Daccommun, Emile 
Ball, Jas. 
Darveniza, T. ... 
Davenport, Sir Samuel 
Davidson, Wm. ... 
Delmenico, Giovanni 
Dick, Dr. 
Docker, F. G. ... 
Doig, J. G. 
Duerkop, Henry 
Dugay, Theodore 
Duncan, Thos. ... 
Dunn, F. 

Eglie, Fred 
Elms, Wm. 
Elston, W. 
Evans, J. 
Everist, J. 

Fitzgerald, R. ... 
Fegely, C. de ... 
Fenton, J. P. ... 
Formby, R. 
Fraser, Hugh ... 
Frey, H. J. 
Frowd, Isaac 
Fyfe, Wm. 

Gardiner, G. 
Giovanoni, D. ... 
Graham Bros. ... 
Grant, James 
Grant, A. N. 
Grant, T. H. 
Grenville, H. K. 
Grosse, Frederick 

Guppy, Walter ... 
Gues-Willer ... 

Haehnell, C. W. 
Hague, J. T. ... 
Haig, Thos. 
Hamilton, D. G. 
Hardy, Thos. ... 
Harrold Bros. ... 
Heape, S. E. 
Henderson, T. S. 
Howell and Green 
Button, M. C. G. 

Irvine, Hans W. H. 

Jeavons, Joseph 
Johns, John 
Johnson, H. 
Johnson, Thos. . . 
Jones, W. 

Bowmont, Sandhurst. 
Hallam's-road Station. 
Witchipool, Donald. 


P.O., Sydney. 

Excelsior Vineyard, Mooroopna. 

Beaumont, Adelaide. 

Moorondah, Hawthorn. 

Terrappee, Boort. 


Bontherambo, Wangaratta. 


Care of Mr. T. Wilson, Chiltern. 


Tubbo, Narandera, N.S.W. 

306 Flinders-lane. 

Tabilk, Nagambie. 
Moyarra, South Gippsland. 
Kangaroo Flat, Sandhurst. 
Buckley-street, Essendon. 

3 Catherine-street, Richmond. 

472 Little Collins-street west. 

Elcho Estate, Lara. 

Surveyor, Mildura. 

Olive Hills, Brown's Plains. 


Tongala, Echuca, Kyabram. 

Bald Hill, St. Arnaud. 


Spring Creek, Hepburn. 
Netherby Vineyard, Rutherglen. 
Craig Elachie, Elmhurst. 
Hillston, N.S.W. 
Mirboo, Gippsland. 

Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye, and 6 Collins- 
street west. 
Care of Mr. Dugay, Rutherglen. 

Krambruk, Apollo Bay. 

Angastown, S.A. 



Bankside, Adelaide. 


Koimburra, Cosgrove. 

Ry. Dept., Wellington, N.Z. 

Bathhurst, N.S.W. 

Cooriug Yering, Lilydale. 

Great Western 

Wycheproof, Teddywaddy. 

Katandra, via Rockville P.O., 

Stony Creek, Rockhampton, Queensland. 

Naringal, Allansford. 



Kahland, J. 
Kelly, T. J. D. _ 
Kelly, G. P. D. ... 
King, Hy. 
Lamerock, Jas. ... 
Lang, W. H. 
Lawrence, A., & Co. 
Lenn^, Carl 
Levin, L. 
Lockhart, W. P 
Logan, Duncan ... 
Long, W. J. 
Macey, James ... 
Mackenzie, R. W. 
Mackereth, Edwin H. 
Magennis, W. J. 
Maginnis, Jas. ... 
Maher, A. 
Mann, J. G. 
Mannes, A. 
Martin, R. W. 
Matthews, G- V 
Manlein, Peter 
Mellis, A. 
Minotti, Gustave 
Mooney, J. & L. .^ 

Morris, G. F., & Sons ... 
Mueller, Dr. A.... 
Mueller, John ... 
McBean, Simon 
Mclntosh, Jas. ... 
McFarlane, S. ... 
McNaughton, John 
Neighbour, C. J. 
Newbery, J. Cosmo, C.M.G. 
Nickenson, J. M. ... 

Nolan, James 
Norman, Dr. H. H. 
Nunn, A. L. 

O'Dea, Michael 

Oldham, Hugh ... 

Osborn, A. F ~ 

Osmand, Hon. W. H. S. ... 
Panton, J. A. ... 
Parker. Joseph 
Paul, A. W. L. 
Pedrini, V. 
Penfold, Dr. O. 
Petersen, H. 
Pooley, Humphrey 
Power, R. D. ... 
Pownall, W. W. 
Poxon, Levi 
Prentice, Jaa. ... 
Pritchard, J. A. 

Ratcliffe, David.. 
Reade, C. 
Reeve, Thomas .. 
Rendell, W. 
Reveree, Alex. ., 
Ridout, J.E. .. 


King-street, Sandhurst. 
Redan street, St. Kilda. 
Viticultural College, Montpellier. 
527 Collins-street. 

Park-street west, Brunswick. 
Victoria Hotel, Elmore. 
Estcourt, Boorhaman, Wangaratta. 
Wynyard, Tasmania. 
P.O., Yabba. 

Arcade, Sandhurst. 
South-street, Freemantle, W.A. 
Axe Creek, Sandhurst. 
N. B. and M. Ins. Co., 41 Queen-street. 

Wood-street, Donald. 

Primrose Garden, Korongvale. 


Ballarat-road, Guildford. 

Mooney's Gap, Ararat. 

Fairfield, Rutherglen. 



Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 


208 Clarendon-street, S. Melbourne. 


Selborne Chambers. 

Hoiham-street, East St. Kilda. 



Rockvilie House, 50 N. Terrace, Adelaide. 

Maizena Works, Merimbula, N.S.W. 


Surveyor, Mildura. 

Cowra, N.S.W. 

Doctor's Creek, Stawell West. 

Alexandra-street, East St. Kilda. 

Castlemaine West. 

Briston, Male-street, Middle Brighton. 



Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 



4 Mill-street, Hanover-square, London. 

Lake Marmal, via Barakee. 

Emu Vineyard. Rutherglen. 

Gwar-y-Castel, Alma-road, St. Kilda. 

Kyabram, Rodney. 

High-street, Sandhurst. 


Longfield, Yielima. 

Dark Forest, Waterfall, Illawarra, N.S.W. 

Goorambat East. 
L 2 


Eidout, Robert, jun. 

Kigby, W. C 

Ritcbie, P. B 

Roberts, John ... 

Ross, G. H. D 

Rough. J. C 

Rubie, Jacob 

Ruedin, A. 

Ryley, F 

Schuhkraft, G. F. 

Seal, P 

Shaw, F. K.' 

Shields, W 

Shillinglaw, John J. 
Shillinglaw, Esmond B. .. 
Shillinglaw, J. Crawford 
Shillinglaw, F. Flinders .. 

Sim, J. ... 

Simon, A. C. 
Smith, Daniel ... 
Smith, G. S., & Sons 
Smith, Edwin ... 
Smith, Elderson... 
Smith, S., & Son 
Snart, Robt. 
Stevens, John ... 
Streckfuss, H. ... 
Stuckey, S. J. ... 
Stuttard, W. ... 
Sutherland, John 
Swindale, Henry 

Tarrant, S. 
Tenner, James ... 
Tenner, P. A. ... 
Thompson, H. E. 
Thompson, J. L. 
Thompson, G. W. 
Tomlinson, H. J. 

Traill, J. C 

Treloar, W. G. 
Tribolet, Abraham 

Tully S. S 

Tyler, E. E. 

Van Staveren, J. C. 
Veitch, Christopher 

Walker, Francis 
Walker, Thos. ... 
Warnecke, C. H. 

Watkin, J. F 

Wattie, Wm. 
Webber, J., & Son 
Webster, Graham 
Welham,John ., 
Wells, H. G 

Wendell, C. H 

Whitehead, J. R. 
Wickham Bros. ... 
Willis, James ... 

Wills, Thos 

Wilson, Dr. C. M. 
Wyndham, E. ... 


Goorambat Vineyard, Benalla. 
74 King William-street, Adelaide. 

Fairburn Grange, Cashel. 
Wethersdane Park, Hallam's-road. 
Elive, Gourlay-street, Balaclava. 
View Point Vineyard, Michelston, Tabilk. 
Huntly Vineyard, Huntly. 




Ethandune, Yielima. 

Panton Hill. 

Panton Hill. 

Panton Hill. 

Panton Hill. 


Green Bank, Bacchus Marsh. 


All Saints', Wahgunyah. 


410 Brunswick-street, Fitzroy. 

Yalumba Vineyard, Angaston, S.A. 


Mutual Store, Melbourne. 


Millicent, S.A. 

4 Prince's-park Terrace, Royal-park. 

Tyrrel-park, Wycheproof. 

Runnymede, Elmore. 

Rosedale Orchard, Clunes. 



Cent Arpent, Hay, N.S.W. 


16 North-street, Richmond. 

60 Simpson-street, E. Melbourne. 

Enfield-street, St. Kilda. 

Watervale, S.A. 

Excelsior Vineyard, Corop. 


Tubbo, Narandera, N.S.W. 


St. Ives, Karabeal. 

Seaton, Gippsland. 


Beaufort-road, Beaufort. 

State School 2565, Leeor. 

Mercer-street, Geelong. 


28 Duke-street, Ballarat W. 


Colbinabbin, Elmore. 


Bullington Vineyard, Wodonga. 

South Wangaratta. 

Whiteway, Moonambel. 

Moyarra, South Gippsland. 

Bukkulla, Inverell, N.S.W. 




[MAY, 1891.] 

(Corrections are specially requested, addressed to the Secretary of the Board.) 


Abbott, David 
Abbott, J. ... 
Abel, Wm. ... 
Abell, W. ... 
Ackerman, Walter 
Adami, Peter 
Adams, Henry 
Adams, John 
Adams, J. S. 
Adams, P. 
Adams, Robt. H. 
Adams, W. A. 
Ah Chung ... 
Ah Dan 
Ah Fee 

Ah Huey, Joney 
Ah Loy 
Ah Shea 
Ah Wong 
Aldersou, Thos. 
Alexander, J. 
Allin, Edwin... 
Amor, J. 
Anders, Herman 
Anderson, John 
Anker, W. ... 
Ansaldo, Emanuel 
Ansell, Edwin 
Anson, Wm. ... 
Archer, W. S. 
Armstrong, Alfred 
Arnold, Jas. ... 
Arnot, E. 
Ashley, William 
Audley, H. ... 
Augustina, A. 
Aumall, Capal 
Aumann, August 

Babbage, J. P. 
Baccala, Antonio 
Backons, ... 
Bacon, Jas. ... 
Bailey, Edgar 


Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Painswick, Goldsborough. 
Inkerman, Dunolly. 

Jamieson-street, Daylesford. 
Deep Lead, Wimmera. 

Mountain Creek, Moonambel. 
Day's Creek, Omeo. 

Myers' Flat, Eaglehawk. 
Bet Bet. 

Toolamba, Tatura. 
Bray-street, Long Gully. 
McCoy's Bridge, Mooroopna. 
Roseberry, Warracknabeal. 
Point Nepean-road. 
Wandin Yallock, Lily dale. 
Newtown, Beechworth. 
Havelock-road, Beechworth. 
Marna Vale, Eltham. 
Mercer-street, Geelong. 
Bluff-road, South Brighton. 
Bet Bet. 

Sailor's Gully, Eaglehawk. 



Great Western. 



Name. Acres. 

Baker, Daniel ... 10 

Baker, George ... 8 

Banna, Jas. ... ... 4 

Barassie, Guiseppe ... 2 

Barldaz, Leon ... 4 

Barlow, John B. ... 30 

Barnes, Jos. ... 

Bartels, Henry 

Batcheler, Richd. ... 1 

Battiland, Joseph ... 7 

Baume, August ... 13 

Baumgarten, G. ... 140 

Baumgarten, W. ... 16 

Bavay, A. de... ... 

Bawden, Wm. .. 2 

Bawm, J. J. ... .. 2 

Baxter, James .. 3 

Baxter, John .. 13 

Bear, J. P 

Bear, T. H. ... ... 40 

Beard, David ... If 

Beck, August ... 10 

Beck, Fredk. .. 29 

Becks, Gustave .. 10 
Bedgood, Charles 
Bedolla, Michael 
Bell, J. 

Benson, A. ... .. 4 

Bensaschi, Giovanni .. 2 

Bent, Thomas ... i 

Beper, Alex. ... 

Berger, Godfred ... ^ 

Berryman, William H. i 

Bersica, S. .. . 15i 

Bertran, Francis . 4 

Best, Henry... . 40 

Bieske,Wilhelm . 1 

Biles, Thos. ... . 1$ 

Billieh, Ignatio . 1$ 

Black, Robt. ... . 1 

Blackburn, Thomas .. 1$ 

Blaikie, Alex. . 20 

Blake, Arthur P. . ^ 

Blanckbourne, Wm. . ^ 

Blayney, Thos. . 40 

Bloon, Christian .. 3 

Bloxham, William .. 3j 

Blumner, F. F. .. 5 

Blumner, Hartman .. 5 

Bodkin, W. ... 7 

Bofil, Martin 3 

Boland, A. ... 6 

Bolla, Pietro... .. 4 

Bon, Mrs. A. F. 2 

Bond, William .. 3 

Bonning, Wm. .. \ 

Boreeland, Alex. .. 6 

Borelli, J. B. .. - 
Borwick, G. E. 

Bossidge, Jasper .. 1^ 

Botton, Edward .. 6 

Bourke, John .. 11 


Woosang, Wedderburn. 
Woosang, Wedderburn. 
Newtown, Beechworth. 
Shicer Gully, Guildford. 
Armitage, Christmas Hill. 
Retreat Vineyard, Barnawartha. 
Whim Holes, Napoleon Lead. 
Newtown, Beechworth, 
El Dorado. 

Perry River, Stratford. 
(See Tahbilk). 
Castle Hill, Yan Yean. 
Three-mile, Beechworth. 
Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 
Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 

Perry River, Stratford. 
Spring Creek, Hepburn. 
Wodonga West. 
Talbot-road, Talbot. 
Union-street, Brighton. 
Ironbark, Long Gully. 

Bray-street, Long, Gully. 
Newtown, Beechworth. 
Concongella Vineyard, Great Western. 
Boram Boram, Penshurst. 
Maryville, Morwell. 

White Hills, Sandhurst. 
North Wangaratta. 
Barnbra-road, Caulfield. 
Doncaster East. 
Ivanhoe, Heidelberg. 

Wappan Station, Doon, Mansfield. 

Greendale-road, Ballan. 
Laanecoorie, Eddington. 
Panton Hill. 

Mount Caranya Vineyard, Dookie. 
Whroo, Rushworth. 
Carlyle, Rutherglen. 




Bowen, Albert 


Bowit, William 


Bowtell Bros. 


Boyes, J. 


Boyes, J. and H. A. . 


Boyes, T. 


Brache", C. ... 


Brache, C 


Bradshaw, J. 


Bramston, George . 
Bray, And. ... 



Bray, Wm 


Brennan, C. ... 


Brennan, M. ... 


Brenzing, Ernest 


Brewer, A. ... 


Brewer, A. ... 


Briggs, Robt. 


Bristow, G. B. N. 


Broadway, James 


Brown, Alfred 


Brown, George 


Brown, George 


Brown, James John * 


Browne, A. H. L. 

Broughton, E. 
Bruce, Andrew 


Bruhn, Albert 


Bruhn, Otto ... 


Brunning, William 


Bryant, Charles 


Brydie, Alex. 


Bubeek, Felix 


Buchanan, Chas. 


Buckley, A. R. 


Buckley, John 

Buckly, John 

2 ."'. 

Bull, John E. N. 


Burgdoff Bros. 

Burge, John ... 

6i :: 

Burger, Johan 
Burne, John ... 


Burne, J. 


Burnes, Jos. G. 


Burns, Joseph 


Burns, J. G. ... 


Burns, Wm. ... 


Burrowes, Wm. 
Burrows, W. and R. J 
Busse, F., and Sons . 


Busst, C. J. ... 


Calanchini, G. 


Calder, William 
Callender, R. 


Cameron, Alex. 


Cameron, Charles 


Cameron, Chas. 


Campbell, Alex. 


Campbell, J. 


Cannings, W. 





Amphitheatre, Elmhurst. 
Jackson's Creek, Sunbury. 
Sugar Loaf, Great Western. 
Leneva, Wodonga. 
Stanhope, Rushworth. 
Middle Creek, Yackandandah. 
112 Collins-street west. 
Bamawm, Rochester. 

Lilliput, Rutherglen. 
Napoleon Lead. 
Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 
Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 
Epsom, Sandhurst. 

Narong, Rutherglen. 
Stawell Vineyard Co. 
Lower Tarwin. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 

Malakoff-road, Beech worth. 
135 Collins-st. W., agent Chateau Tahbilk. 

Perry River, Stratford. 
Emu Vineyard, Emu Creek. 

Somerville, Hastings. 

Bald Hill, Sunbury. 

Vine Bank, Beeao. 



Charlton-road, Wedderburn. 


Barker's Creek, Castlemaine. 


Yulanga, Boram Boram, Penshurst. 


Axe Creek, Sandhurst. 


Carlyle, Rutherglen. 


Upper Black Dog Creek, Chiltern. 



Burrabunnia, Barnawartha. 




Katun ga. 

Bailieston, Nagambie. 

Almond Grove, Bet Bet. 





Great Western. 


Name. Acres. 

Carnie and Munday ... 4 

Carroll, S. ... ... 3 

Carson Bros. ... 60 

Carson, J. ... .. ^ 

Carson, T. K. .. 52 

Gary, Thos 18 

Cassubean Bros. .. 10 

Castella, Paul De .. 100 

Castles, J. J. .. 6 

Cathro, Alex. .. 1 

Caughey, Alex. .. 260 

Cay ley, Catherine .. | 

Cazer, Chas 

Celerich, Steven .. H 

Chambers, Geo. .. 42 

Chambers, Phil. . 20 

Champion, Adolph .. 4 

Chandler, Geo. .. 3 

Chandler, Geo. . .. 10 

Chandler, James .. 45 

Chandler, William .. 13 

Chapman, T. H. .. 12 

Chappie, Henry .. \ 

Charls worth, Joseph .. 1 

Child, ... .. 

Christians, Wm. .. 3 

Clarke and Parry .. 5 

Clarke, Geo. ... 1 

Clarke, Hen. .. Si 

Clements, John .. 1 

Cleough, ... .. i 

Clift, W. ... 1 

Clifford, Lewin H. .. & 

Climus, Mrs. .. 5 

Cochran, Michl. .. 1 

Code, B. ... .. 3 

Coe, William .. 

Cole, Arthur .. 2 

Cole, Mrs. Ward .. * 

Coleman, S. ... .. 12 

Collard, G. ... .. 

Collen, John ... .. 30 

Collie, John ... .. 12 

Cone, John ... .. 2 

Congdon, William .. 5 

Conno, John .. 9 

Conroy, Pat. ... .. 9 

Conroy, Wm. .. 15 

Cook, James .. 15 

Cook, J. ... .. 7 

Cook, Saml. ... .. 2 

Coombes, Wm. ... f 

Cooper, Geo. ... \ 

Cooper, James ... 8 

Copsey, Alfred ... 1 

Corcoran, Pat. ... 3 

Cornelius, J. ... .. 17 

Cornforth, ... 3 

Costello, P. H. ... 25 

Coupar, Joseph ... 

Cousens, Benjamin ... 1 

Cox, Thos, i 


Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
North Mooroopna. 
Deep Lead, Wimmera. 

Black Spring-road, Beechworth. 
Mount Prior Vineyard, Gooramadda. 
Craigie, Majorca. 

St. Arnaud-road, Wedderburn. 
Great Western. 

Mount Korong-road, Long Gully. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell. 
Lake Rowan. 

Lunatic Asylum, Ararat. 

Grassy Flat, Sandhurst. 

Bacchus Marsh. 

Burn side, Tooborac, Heathcote. 
Axe Creek, Sandhurst. 

Nicholson-street, Coburg. 
Bay-street, Brighton. 

Dobie's Bridge, Ararat. 

Main Lead, Beaufort. 

Wattle Flat, Castlemaine. 


Chiltern West, Rutherglen. 

Great Western. 

Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 

Middle Creek, Yackandandah. 

Axe Creek, Axedale. 

Railway Reserve, Echuca East. 

Brid ge water-on-Loddon. 

Upper Black Dog Creek, Chiltern. 

Bet Bet. 

Research Yineyard, Eltham. 



Mount Hooghly, Dunolly. 







Coyle, Bernard 


Craig, W. 


Craike, Thos. 


Cranny, Fredk. 


Croft, Robert 

Crolle, D. ... 


Crooke, James E. 


Crouch, Harry 

Crozier, A. ... 

'.'.'. 2 

Crozier, Elliott 


Cue, Geo. 


Cuff, Abraham 


Cummins, J. 


Curnick, F. 


Curnow, Jas. 


Currie, Capt. 


Curry, Mrs. 


Curtain, John 


Curtis, C. E. 


Cussen, M. 


Dalberti, Dominich ... 
Daley, J. J. 
Daly, H. O'B. 
Daly, Jas. 
Daly, N. 
Daravin, J. T. 
D'Arcey, Peter 
Darragh, James 
Darveniza, T. 
Davey, H. T. 
Davey, T. ... 
Davidson, John 
Davidson, Wm 
Deane, John 
Dear, Fredk. 
Deas, Geo. ... 
Deason, John 
Deganhardt, G. 
Deherert, Reinhold ... 
Delmenico, Giovanni 
Delves, Henry 
Dennis, John 
Denscher, R. 

Derritt, J 

Deritt, M., sen. 
Deschamp, August ... 
Deschamp, Mrs. C. 
Deschamp, Mrs. L. ... 
Devers, C .... 
Dewar, Hugh 
Dewer, Catherine 
De Fury, E. 

Dick, Dr 

Dickson, Robt. 
Dickson, Thos. 
Dickson and Sons 
Dimboola Abor. Mis. S. 
Dixon, John 
Docker, F. G. 
Dod, R 














Christmastown, Chiltern. 
Wodonga West. 
Bowmont, Sandhurst. 
Cockran- street, Elsternwick. 
Waverly-road, Oakleigh. 

Bacchus Marsh. 
Yanipy, Kaniva. 
Kulnine, Yelta. 
Taripta, Echuca. 

Woodstock West, Eddington. 
Beach, Brighton. 
Bet Bet. 

Chateau Dookie, Dookie. 

Great Western. 

Gibson-road, Sandringham. 



Great Western. 


Parkin's Reef -road, Maldon. 


Excelsior Vineyard, Mooroopna. 




Faraday, Castlemaine. 






Don caster East. 

Terrappee, Boort. 

Constantia, Myers' Flat, Eaglehawk. 

Back Creek, Marong. 

Philpot-street, Long Gully. 

Great Western. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 


Lily dale. 



Great Western. 




Upper Indigo, Barnawartha. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 


Glen Eira-road, Elsternwick. 

Bontherambo, Wangaratta. 



Name. Acres. 

Doig, J. G ..... ... 20 

Dominiquez, A. ... 1 

Donald, Alex. ... 

Donaldson, John ... \ 

Donnelly, James ... 5 

Dookie Agric. Coll. ... 15 

Dorg, Wm. ... ... 3 

Dorsa, P. D. ... ... & 

D'Orsy, Laurence ... 5 

Douglas, Thomas ... 23 

Drew, William ... \ 

Drummond, G. M. ... 20 

Drummond, Mrs. Margt. 20 

Du Boulay, Francis ... 1J 

Ducommaw, Emil ... 12 

Duerkop, Henry ... 4 

Duff, John ... ... 1 

Dunn, A ....... 35 

Dunn, John ... ... 7 

Dunn, Mrs. ... ... 9 

Dunn, Saml. ... ... l 

Duscher, Jacob ... 5 

Duscher, Rudolph ... 4 

Duvall, J ....... 2| 

Dyer, John ... ... 1 

Eaddy, Alfred 
Eagle, Wm. ... 

Eaking, George 

Eaton, Jas. ... ... 10 

Edmonds, J. H. ... 4 

Edwards, J. F. ... 9 

Edwards, Mrs. ... 1| 

Edwards, E. ... ... 12 

Eglie, Fred. ... ... 12 

Eisele, Richd. ... 15 

Eligate, Mrs. ... 5 

Elliott, E. ... ... 6 

Ely, Rob. ... ... i 

Emmerson, James ... 5 

Esperson, Gustavo ... 2 

Estapling Bros. ... 9 

Ettershank, John, and Co. 30 

Ewins, George ... 3 

Facey, James ... \ 

Falder, John ... 2 

Falk, F ....... 1 

Fankhauser, Geo. ... 1 

Farkins, August ... \ 

Farrasi, Joseph ... if 

Farrell, Andw. ... 2 

Farrioli, Andrew ... 7 

Faulkiner, John ... 7 

Felgenhaur, Fredk. ... 3 

Ferguson, Alex. ... 4 

Ferguson, Donald ... 3 

Ferhemann, Auguste 1 

Fernando, Joseph ... 1 

Field, J. R. A. 

Figgins, Jas. ... 4| 

Finger, H. ... 5 

. Address. 
Woodford. Dartmoor. 
Chinaman s Creek, Castlemaine. 
Christmas Town-road, Chiltern. 

P^lengarden, Myers' Flat, Eaglehawk. 

Doma-Munjie, Chiltern. 

Sparrowhawk, Long Gully. 
Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Holmes Creek, Beechworth. 
Baringhup West. 
Duulavin, Talbot. 
Great Western. 
Great Western. 
Wodonga West. 
Kiewa, Yackandandah. 

Charlton-road, Wedderburn. 


Duncan-street, Long Gully. 


Clear Lake, Natimuk. 


Fell Timber Creek, Wodonga. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 

Tahbilk, Nagambie. 

Kanyapella, via Echuca. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 

Bet Bet. 

Newman, Baringhup. 

Great Western. 

Craigie, Majorca. 

Freestone Creek, Briagolong. 

East Loddon Estate, Serpentine. 

Doctor's Creek, Stawell West. 

Spring Mount Farm, Cranbourne. 

Murphy's Flat, Tarnagulla. 

Wodonga West. 

Belmore-road, Balwyn. 

Mount Lonach, Amphitheatre, Lexton. 

Elevated Plains, Hepburn. 

Summer Head, Baringhup 

Snake Hill, Glenlyon. 

Woosang, Wedderburn. 

Stewart's Bridge, Echuca. 


Azarby, Yea. 

Doncaster East. 

Frenchman's, Landsborough. 

Kialla West. 

Mollison's Creek, Pyalong, Glenaroua, 

Py along. 
Doncaster East. 




Finger, H., jun. 


Fisher, Mrs. Sarah ... 


Fitzgerald, Edward .. 
Fitzjohn, Jas. 


Fizelle, George 
Fizelle, Theodore 


Fizelle, Thos. 


Flack, Geo. ... 


Fleming, Thos. 


Fletcher, Wm. 


Florentine, Charles ... 


Flowers, David 


Foggo, James 


Forster, John 


Fortune, M. ... 


Foux, Peter ... 


Fowles, Wm. F. 

Fox, A. 


Fox, Henry ... 

Francome, E. 


Franzi, Guiseppe 


Fraser, Hugh 


Frater, Peter 


Frey, H. J 

Frowd, Isaac . 


Fuge, R 


Fulton, Andrew 


Fulton and Co. 


Futicke, Valentine ... 


Furguson, John 


Furness, Geo. 


Gaach, John... 


Gaffy, M 


Gaggioni, Pietro ~. 


Gale, Danl. ... 


Gambetta, W. 


Gambetti, Peter 


Gammell, Alexander 

Garbeline, Peter 


Gardiner, Geo. 

Gardner, James G. .. 
Gasparo, Giovanni .. 
Gee Wah 


Gehan, Francis 


Gehrig, G. P. 


Gemmell, John 


Gemmil, William 
Gemmill, James 


Gemmill, J. J. 


Gentle, Thomas 


Gervasoni, Antonio .. 


Gervasoni, Carlo 


Gervasoni, Lugi 
Gianetti, Baptist 
Gibbs, Alex. 



Gieppy, Walter 


Gifford, Wm. 

Giles, Henry 


Gillam, James 


Gillet, Paul 



Doncaster East. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 

White Hills, Sandhurst. 
White Hills, Sandhurst. 
Botanical Gardens, White Hills, Sand- 

Warrior Hills, Beeac. 
Mitchelston, Nagambie. 

Yailock, Edenhope. 

Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 
McCall urn's Creek, Majoroa. 
Darlimurla, Mirboo. 
Newstead-road, Guildford. 
Olive Hills, Brown's Plains. 
Tongala, Echuca. 

Mount Fulton, Lilydale. 
Wyuna, vid Echuca. 
Hazeldean, Millewa. 

Moonlight Flat, Castlemaine. 



Kaniva South. 

Deep Lead, Wimmera. 

Elizabeth Creek, Stawell West. 

Elizabeth-street, Malvern. 

Melbourne-road, Beechworth. 



Ringwood, Mornington. 


Mokepilly, Stawell West. 


Wooragee, Beechworth. 

Golden Valley, Bet Bet. 



Tangambalanga, Kiewa. 

Yandoit Creek, Yandoit. 

Yandoit Creek, Yandoit. 

Yandoit Creek, Yandoit. 



Goomalibee, Benalla. 

Korong Vale. 

White Hills, Sandhurst. 

East Murchison. 

Great Western. . 



Gilliland, Wm. 
Gilmore, G. ... 
Giovanoni, D. 
Glasgow, D. ... 
Gleddin, Bernard 
Gledhill,H. ... 
Gliddell, Mrs. 
Glisson, S. ... 
Gloss, J. 
Gloty, J. 
Glover, Mrs. 
Goddard, H. S. 
Godley, P. F. 
Golding, Alfred 
Golds worthy, Mrs. Mary 

Gollings, S 

Goode and Sons 
Goodyer, E. ... 
Goodyer, Mrs. 
Gordon, C. ... 
Gordon, Miss 
Gorse, Thos. 
Gould, Daniel 
Grace, Mrs. Bridget ... 
Graham and Cameron 
Graham Bros. 
Graham, George 
Grant, David 
Grant, James 
Grant, James 
Grant, Robt. 
Grant, William 
Gray, Wm. ... 
Green, James 
Green, John ... 
Green, P. ... 
Greenaway, Joseph 
Greenham, G. 
Greenman, J. 
Gregge, W. ... 
Grey, Fredk. 
Grice, James 
Grieffenhagen, W. 
Griffin, Jeremiah 
Griffin, John 
Griffin, Richard 
Griffin, W. and Osmond 
Grimmond, John 
Grosse. Frederick 

Groutsch, Mrs. Barbara 
Gussettie, Fredk. 

Hackford, Ed. 
Hadley, Geo. 
Haig, Thos. ... 
Hall, Francis 
Ham, J. 
Hammil, Pat. 
Hamilton, D., jun. ... 
Hamilton, D. G. 
Hamilton. M. 


Woodlands, Napoleon Lead, 
Spring Creek, Hepburn. 
Great Western. 
Allen's Flat, Yackandandah 

Bullock Creek, Marong. 
Taripta, Rodney. 
Great Western. 
Kaniva South. 
Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
Huon's Creek, Wodonga. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Doncaster East. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 

Netherby Vineyard, Rutherglen. 

Mount Korong-road,Long Gully. 
Craig Elachie, Elmhurst. 
Somerville, Hastings. 
Lowan, Natimuk. 
Millbank. Bacchus Marsh. 
Granite Hill, Talbot. 
Kitty's Lead, Napoleon Lead. 
Craigie, Majorca. 

Ranter's Gully, Campbell's Creek 
Maidenham, Coghill's Creek. 
White Hills, Sandhurst. 

Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye, and 6 Collins- 

Runnymede, Elmore. 

Lilliput, Rutherglen. 

Kiewa, Yackandandah. 


Wattle Flat, Castlemaine. 


Summer Hill, Christmas Town, Chiltern. 

Clydeside, Rutherglen. 






Hamilton, T. 


Hamling, Thos. 
Hampton, Josiah 




Hancock, Chas, 


Hanlon, L. ... 


Hannan, Mrs. 



Hannon, John 



Hannon, Mrs. 


Hanton, E. ... 


Harbery, Alfred 
Hardy, Joseph 




Hardy, J 



Harditch, Geo. 


Harris, G. J.... 



Harris, Mrs. ... 


Hart, Pat. ... 



Harrison, John 



Harrison, John 



Harrison, John * 



Hartigan Bros. 



Hartigan, D. 


Hartweek, Carl 


Hasty, Ralph 



Headdey, E. ... 


Hedge, Geo. ... 


Heedenwag, A. 



Heily, G. D. ... 



Helier, John... 



Helliar, John 


Hempestall, G. 

Henay, Thos. 


Henderson, A. 



Henderson, A. 


Henley, James 



Hennessy, J. ... 



Hennicker, Henric 



Henning, John 


Heyfrom, Stephen 



Hicks, Joseph 





Hill, James ... 



Hill, Mrs. Emily 



Hillier, H. L. " 



Hindaon, John 


Hiskins, John 



Hintze, G. ... 


Hives, John ... 



Hobbs, ... . 



Hodgkinson, J. 


Hodgson, H. ... 


Hole, Mrs. ... 



Holland, Alfred 



Holibone, Walt. ... 



Holloway, G. 



Holmes, John 



Holmes, Thos. 



Hood, John ... 



Horbury, ... 



Horseman, Henry 


Horewood, Joel 


Hoskin, Richd. 




Landon, Yandoit. 
Ravens wood, Castlemaine. 
Oh've Vineyard, Stewart's Bridge, via 

Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
McCoy's Bridge, Mooroopna. 
Sheepwash, Strathfieldsaye. 

Clear Lake, Natimuk. 
Axe Creek, Axedale. 
Marong, Rutherglen. 
Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 
Brown's Plains. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Hamilton JNorth. 
Bungeeltap-road, Ballan. 
St. Ethel's Vineyard, Great Western. 

Middle Creek, Wodonga. 
Moora, Rushworth. 
Goulburn Park, Wunghnu. 
Lillimur North. 
Burnside, Rutherglen. 




Lower Three-mile,. Beechworth. 

Lockwood, Kangaroo Flat. 
Upper Black Dog Creek, Chiltern. 

Bromley, Dunolly. 

Burnt Creek, Dunolly. 

Britannia Reef, Majorca. 



Canterbury-road, Balwyn. 



Black Lead, Napoleon Lead. 



Allen's Flat, Yackandandah. 

Bet Bet. 


Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 


Barrow Vineyard, Strathfieldsaye. 




Blanket Flat-road, Campbell's Creek. 


Royal Farm, Benalla. 





Hossack, Jas. 


.. Rutherglen. 

Howard, John 



Howell, Mrs. M. 
Ho wen stein, And. 



.. Lilliput, Rutherglen. 
.. Three-mile Creek, Ararat. 

Howie, Robt. 


Westfield, Moreland-road, Brunswick. 

Hewlett, Fredk. 


.. Spring Grove, Merrivale, Morwell. 

Houston, Wm. R. 


.. Rutherglen. 

Hughes, Mark ,. 


.. Hamilton North. 

Eughes, Wm. 


.. Rutherglen. 

Hughes, W 
Hunt, Frank... 


.. Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
.. Walwa Creek. 

Hunter, John 

.. Wedderburn. 

Huntly, John 
Humphreys, Jas. 
Hurnell, Mrs. 


.. Thomas-street, Brighton. 
.. Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 
.. Great Western. 

Hutchins, Geo. 


.. Coleraine. 

Button, Harry 


.. Specimen Gaily, Campbell's Creek. 

Button, M. C. G. 
Button, ... 


.. Cooring Yering, Lilydale. 
.. Great Western. 

Hyland and Wain 


.. Chiltern. 

Ingram, A. ... 


... Bagshot, Buntlv. 

Invernezzi, Ambrozio 


... Yandoit Creek, "Yandoit. 

Ireland, De Courcy ... 


... Horsham. 

Irvine, Hans W. B. ... 


... Great Western. 

Jacobs, Joseph 
Jack, Rob 


Kialla West, Shepparton. 

Jackson, J. ... 



Jackson, Mrs. 


Runnymede, Elmore. 

Jackson, Mrs. Sarah ... 



Jacobson, Charles 



Jamieson, ... 


Doctor's Creek, Stawell. 

Jamieson, R. 


Tangambalanga, Kiewa. 

Jeavons, Joseph 


Wycheproof, Teddywaddy. 




Jenkin, John 


Cambrian Bill, Napoleon Lead. 

Jennings, Geo. 
Jochen, John 



Woodside, Casterton. 
Templestowe, Doncaster. 

Johns, John 


Katandra, Cashel. 

Johns, Thos. M. 


Britannia Reef, Majorca. 


. Tubut Station. 

Johnston, David 


Dookie, Cashel. 

Johnston, J. C. 
Johnston, J. S. 



.. Springvale, Jackson's Creek, Sunbury. 
.. Sunbury. 

Johnston, Robt. 


.. Manual, Boort, 

Johnston, William 


.. Caralulup, Talbot-road, Lexton. 

Jolly, William 
Jolly, Wm. 


.. Bunguluke, Wycheproof. 
.. Great Western. 

Jones, Alfred 


.. Somerville, Bastings. 

Jones, H. 


... Rutherglen. 

Jones, Benry Geo. 
Jones, Humphrey 



... Yarra Yarra Vineyard, Eltham. 
... Carlyle. 

Jones, James 

... Garden Flat, Majorca. 

Jones, William 


... Wedderburn. 

Jones, W. 


... Mooroopna. 

Kahland, J. ... 

... King-street, Sandhurst. 

Kam, G. 


... Amphitheatre-road, Avoca. 

Kane, G. 


... Avoca. 

Kapper, Benry 


... Bonegilla, Bellianga. 





Kavanagh, M. 
Kay, Fong 
Kegan, Patk. 
Kelly, E 


.. Lake Erie Vineyard, Mooroopna. 
.. Indigo, Chiltern. 
.. Mokepilly, Stawell West. 
. Wodonga. 

Kelly, J 


. Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Kelly, Joseph 


. Rutherglen. 

Kelly, M 


. Wodonga. 

Kewly, Thos. 


. Waterloo. 



. Narioka. 

Kilson, Thos. 


. Bealiba. 

Kimber, John J. 


. Harcourt, Castlemaine. 

King, Daniel 


. Lilliput, Rutherglen. 

King, Dan. ... 


. Rutherglen. 

King, E. and Edward 


. Rutherglen. 

Kinge, W. ... 

. Wodonga West. . 

Kitchen, A. ... 



Kitchen, Henry H. 


. Mansfield. 

Kitchen, William 


. Waterloo. 

Klein, Chas. F. 


. Wyuna, via Echuca. 

Klein, Otto ... 


. Kanyapella, via Echuca. 

Knight, G. W. sen. .. 


. Sandhurst. 

Knight, Joseph 
Knott, Joseph 


. Mooroopna. 
. Lockwood, Kangaroo Flat. 

Koch, F 


. Christmas Town. 

Koenstel, Otto 


. Huntly. 

Kreoger, Theodore .. 


. Hepburn. 

Krutze, Rob. 

.. Hamilton South. 

Kurle, Rob. ... 

40 '. 

.. Rosenthal, Sunbury. 

Laidlaw, John 


.. Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Laidlaw, W. 
Lamond, R. G. 

'! ' 

.. Banayeo, Apsley. 
.. Great Western. 


.. Kadnook, Edenhope. 

Lang, Jas. ... 

.. Harcourt. 

Lang, John ... 

2 '. 

.. Huntly. 

Lang, W. 


.. Middle Creek, Wodonga. 

Lange, W. ... 


.. Baranduda, Wodonga. 

Lapsley, Robt. 
Laub, Louis 
Laurence, John 


.. Lockwood, Kangaroo Flat. 
.. Honeysuckle, Lauriston. 
.. Union-street, Brighton. 

Laurence, Joseph 


.. Mill-street, Brighton. 

Lauson, Robert 


.. Kiewa, Yackandandah. 

Laver, Alfred 

.. Chinaman's Creek, Castlemaine. 

Lawe, Joseph 


.. Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 

Lawson, John 


.. Strathfieldsaye. 

Leech, Robert 


.. Grange Vineyard, Tooborac, Heathcote. 

Leikman, William 


.. White Hills, Sandhurst. 

Leitch, J. ..: 

.. Wodonga West. 

Lennye, Carl 


.. Echuca. 

Leonard, P. ... 

.. Napoleon Lead. 

Lettow, Jas. ... 

.. Dunolly. 

Levin, L. 


.. Rutherglen. 

Leviston, Hy. 

.. Enfield, Napoleon Lead. 

Lewis, Samuel 
Lloyd, Michael 


.. Mandurang, Strathfieldsaye. 
.. Concongella, Great Western. 

Lloyd, Patrick 

.. Concongella, Great Western. 

Lloyd, Wm 


.. Alston, Waranga, Rushworth. 

Lindlaw, Mrs. 


.. Rutherglen. 

Lindsey, R. ... 


.. Sherbourne East, Marong. 

Ling, James ... 


.. Dereel, Rokewood. 


.. Campbellfield. 

Lockett, James 


.. Waanyarra. 


Name. Acres. 
Longerenong Ag. Col. 

Longstaff, J. ... 15 

Looney, Thos. ... 50 

Lorimer, John ... 21 

Lounds, Ambrose ... 20 

Love, J. D. ... ... H 

Loveland, Geo. ... 1 

Lowden, Charles ... 

Luflovv, Wm. ... 11 

Lynn, ... ... 7 

Lyon, Mrs. ... ... 

Macey, James ... 36 

Mackereth, Edwin H. f 

Magee, ... ... 3 

Maguire, J. E. ... 10 

Maguire, Thos. ... 16 

Maher, A. ... ... 1 

Maher, J. ... ... 6 

Maher, Laurence ... 7 

Maling, J. B. ... i 

Malone, Daniel ... 1 

Manager, John ... 12 

Maniel, De H. ... 

Mann, John ... ... 2 

Mantis, G. ... ... 10 

Mannes, A. ... ... 30 

Manness, Anthony ... 20 

Manson, Jas. ... 

Margery, G. ... ... 55 

Mariott, Louis ... 2 

Marriott, John ... 2 

Marshall, Joseph ... i 

Martin, C. ... ... 

Martin, F. ... ... 50 

Martin, Geo. ... 

Martin, James ... 15 

Martin, John ... 5 

Martin, John ... 3 

Martin, J. F. ... 60 

Martinoga, Philip ... 1 

Maskell, Geo. ... i 

Mason, A. B. and A. C. 12 

Mason, John ... 

Massanich, Antonio ... 2 

Massey, George ... 8 

Mathews, Leonatheous 4 

Matthews, W. H. ...' 3 

Matthews, W. ... 100 

Matthewson, John ... 

Manlein, Peter ... 6 

Maunder, Geo. ... 15 

Maxwell, W. H. \ 

May, Peter D. ... 8 

Mayt-rhoff, Carl ... 2 

Mehener, Paul 1 

Meiklim, William ... 8 

Mellis, A. ... ... 4 

Mellon, F. ... 18 

Melville, Donald 3* 

Merlo, E. 

Merry, David ... 4 


Allen's Flat, Yackandandah. 

Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 
Mitta Mitta. 

Upper Black Dog Creek, Wooragee. 
Great Western. 
Stanmore House, Balmoral. 

Estcourt, Boorhaman, Wangaratta. 



Excelsior Vineyard, Mandurang. 

Spring Vale, Rutherglen. 

Arcade, Sandhurst. 

Bonegilla, Wodonga. 


Whitehorse-road, Balwyn. 

Laanecoorie, Eddington. 

Great Western. 

Barnawartha North. 


Leneva, Wodonga. 

Axe Creek, Sandhurst. 


Wattle Flat, Castlemaine. 



Main -road, Campbell's Creek. 

Muckleford, Castlemaine. 

El Dorado Park, Chiltern. 




Kangaroo Creek, Sandhurst. 

Hawthorne Vineyard, Birregurra. 


Shicer Gully, Guildf ord. 

Durrant-street, Brighton. 


Mitchell-street, Echuca East. 



Alma-road, Beechworth. 


Barnawartha North. 

Dendy-street, Brighton. 

Primrose Garden, Korongvale. 

Barnawartha North. 


Jallukar, Stawell West. 

Spring Creek, Beechworth. 

Chinaman's Creek, Castlemaine. 



St. Francis' Vineyard, Dunolly. 

Albion-street, Brunswick. 

South Parkins, Maldon. 

Wooragee, Beechworth. 




Mertitmeyer, A. E. .. 


Metzger, Jules 


Metzger, Louis 
Meyer, Francis 


Meyer, F. 


Meyer, H. H. 


Michael, H. ... 


Mildura (Chaffey Bros.) 

Milesi, Angelo 


Millard, Henry 

; T .., 

Millard, John 

; . 

Miller, Emma 

2* '.'.' 

Miller, James 


Miller, Wm. and Geo. 


Millington, F. 


Mills, Chs 


Mills, Samuel 
Minogue, Michael 


Minotti, Antonio 


Minotti, Battista 


Minotti, Gustave 


Mirrigan, Pat. 


Mitchell, Alf. 


Mitchell, Bar. 


Mitchell, M. A. 


Mitchell, Mrs. B. 


Mitchell, Wm. 


Mole, Geo 


Mongan, D. ... 




Montfort, W. 


Montgomery, Thos. .. 
Mooney, J. and L. 



Moor, T. S 


Moore, B. 


Moore, John... 


Moran, Marcellus 


Moran, Martin 


Morgan, Mrs. 


Morganti, Maurizio . . 


Moresi, Francesco 


Morley, Fredk. 


Morley, James 
Morris, G. F., & Sons 



Mowatt, Alex. G. 


Mueller, Dr. A. 


Mulcare, Joseph 


Mull, Christian 


Muller, Mrs. F. 


Miiller, D. J. 
Muller, Jacob H. 

1 :: 

Murphy, B. ... 


Murphy, Timothy 
Murray, E. J. .. 


Murry, C. ... 


Murry, Mrs. Ann 


Murry, William 


Mutzig, Charles 


Myer, Christie 


Myers, Albert 


Myers, H 


Myers, Wm. ... 



Doctor's Creek, Stawell. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell. 
Lockwood, Kangaroo Flat. 

Sheepwash, Mandurang. 

Swanston-street, Melbourne. 
Smeaton-road, Yandoit. 
Union-street, Brighton. 
Union-street, Brighton. 
Honeysuckle, Lauriston. 
Noorilim East, Arcadia, Murchison. 
South Brighton. 
Enfield, Napoleon Lead. 

South Bundalong, Yarrawonga. 
Hepburn, Mount Franklin. 
Mill Spring, Franklinford, Yandoit 
Ballarat-road, Guildford. 
Barnawartha North. 
Narong, Rutherglen. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 

McCallum's Creek, Talbot. 

Allen's Flat, Yackandandah. 
White Hills, Sandhurst. 
Mooney's Gap, Ararat. 
Bellevue, Benalla. 

White Hills, Sandhurst. 

Cherrytree, Kangaroo Flat. 
Eastern Hill, Eganstown. 

Spring Creek, Beechworth. 
Fairfield, Rutherglen. 
Langi-Ghiran, Ararat. 
El Dorado. 

Indigo, Yackandandah. 

Wharparilla, via Echuca. 
Ton gala, Kyabram. 
Somerville, Frankston. 

Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 
Alma-road, Caulfield. 
Deep Lead, Wimmera. 
Spring Creek, Beechworth. 
Mount Fairyiew, Box Hill. 



Myles, Edward 
McBean, Simon 
McBride, Alex. 
McCabe, James 
McCormack, John 
McCrum, R. ... 
McDonald, John 
McDonald, William ... 
McDugall, Jas. 
McEwin, Peter 
McFarlane, C. 
McFarlane, C. 
McFarlane, W. 
McGarrigle, Jas. 
McGuan, John 

McGill, A 

McGill, J 

McGuines, John 
McGuire, Thos. 
McGuire, ... 
Mclnerny, Mrs. Eliza 
Mclnnis, J. ... 
Mclntyre, Hugh 
Mclntyre, John 
McKay, Wm. 
McKenzie, Alex. 
McKenzie, James 
McKinley, Chs. 
McKinnon, Mrs. Anne 
McKirdy, Alex. 
McKnity, Hugh 
McLennan, J. 
McLeod, William 
McNaughton, John ... 
McNeill,W. H. 
McPhee, John 
McPherson, Donald ... 
McPherson, Jas. 
McPherson, Rob. 

Nation, Philip 
Neil son, George 
Neilson, John 
Nett, Jesse... 
Niblett, Chas. 
Nicholls, Samuel 
Nicholson, J. C. 
Nickenson, J. M. 
Nicol, John ... 
Nolan, James 
Norcam, Richard 
Norton, Mrs. Margaret 
Nott, Harry ... 
Nutske, Henry 
Nuttall, Thomas 

Gates, Wm .... '... 

Odgers, R. ... 
Oliver, Mrs. Marg 
Olney, Jams. 
Olsson, Charles 


























Waanyarra, Tarnagulla. 
Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 

St. Kilda-street, Brighton. 
Eclat, Docker's Plains, Wangaratta. 
Bambra-road, Caulfield. 
Dunrobin, Casterton. 
Fell Timber Creek, Wodonga. 
Wodonga West. 
Wodonga West. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 
Concongella, Great Western. 
Narong, Rutherglen. 
Sheepwash, Mandurang. 
Green Hill, Chiltern. 
Wattle Hill, Melbourne-road, Chiltern. 

Booraman, Wangaratta, 
Bet Bet. 
Timor West. 

Somerville, Hastings. 
Narong, Rutherglen. 

Little River Vineyard, Little River. 
Avoca-road, Lamplough. 
Nan gal a, Casterton. 
Lilliput, Rutherglen. 
Tahbilk, Nagambie. 

Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 

Horticultural Soct.'s Gardens, Richmond. 


Ranter's Gully, Campbell's Creek. 


Murphy's Flat, Tarnagulla. 

McCallum's Creek, Talbot. 




Jallukar, Stawell West. 

Growtley, Wangaratta. 



Craigie, Majorca. 

El Dorado. 

Kitty's Lead, Napoleon Lead. 

Carlyle, Rutherglen. 


Mia Mia, Redesdale. 




Oman, Mrs. Charlotte 


Onsley, Chas. 


Osborne, W. T. 


Osbourne, Henry 


Osmand, Hon. W. H. S. 


Ostler and Son, W. H. 


O'Brien, Garrett 


O'Connor, John 


O'Dea, Michael 




O'Shea, John 


O'Sullivan, F. 


Pagan, George 
Pallenger, Henry 
Panton's Freehold M. Co. 


Parker, Joseph 


Parker, Mrs. M. 
Parker, Richard 


Parnaby, M. ... 


Parry and Clark 


Parry, Edward 


Parry, William 


Passalaqua, Prospero 


Patterson, J. 


Payne, Henry 


Payne, H. W. G. 
Payne, Mrs. 

1 : 

Payne 5 Mugleston 


Pearce, Jos. 


Peatling, Henry 


Pedrineini, Pietro 


Pedrini, Vincenzo 


Peerless, H. ... 


Pegganette, Peter 
Pegler, A. H. 


Pellow, Thos. 


Pennington, Harold ... 
Peoples, Robt. 
Perini, Vincent 

s 9 * :: 


Perry, Mrs. Bridget ... 
Petchell, Wm. 



Petersen, H. ... 


Phelps, Robt. 


Philip, Adam 
Phillips, Henry 

3 4 '. 

Plum, Albert 


Pohl, C 


Pola, Mrs. Ann 


Polo, John ... 


Polo, Peter ... 


Pollard, G 


Pollinelli, Antonio ... 
Pooley, Humphrey ... 


Porter, Zadok 


Posiner, Philip 


Pottenger, H. F. 


Potter, Robt. 


Powell, J 


Power, Thos. 


Poxon, Levi ... 



Glen Eira-road, Caulfield. 
Cemetery-road, Campbell's Creek. 
Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell West. 
Mitchelldale, Dayo. 
North-road, Brighton. 
Greendale, Ballan. 

Burnside, Mooroopna. 


Epsom Vineyard, Sandhurst. 

Castlemaine West. 

Wodonga West. 


Huon's Creek, Wodonga. 

Cambrian, Landsborough. 

Garden Flat, Majorca. 

Garden Flat, Majorca. 

Shicer Gully, Guildford. 

Leneva, Wodonga. 


Budgeree, Boolara, South Gippsland. 

Xambrook-road. Caulfield. 

Kialla West, Mooroopna. 

Crumple Horn, Rutherglen. 

Bagshot, Huntly. 





Ned's Corner, Yelta. 


Glen Eira-road, Caulfield. 


Spring Creek, Hepburn. 

Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Hamilton South. 

Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 

Dunolly North. 

Bow Flat, Wedderburn. 


Docker's Plains, Wangaratta. 

Emu Creek, Sandhurst. 




Bonegilla, Wodonga. 





Drumanure, Karpool. 

Chiltern West, Rutherglen. 

Grassy Flat, Sandhurst. 


Lake Marmal, via Barakee. 

M 2 




Poynton, Win. 


Pratt, James ... 

35 . 

Prentice, Jas. 


Prentice, M. J. 


Prescott, Thos. 


Price, William 


Pritchard, Alexander 


Pump, John ... 


Purcell, William H. 


Pyle, Robert ... 


Quin, Charles 


Quinn, A. 


Quirk, Thomas 


Quirt Bros. ... 


Rainess, H. ... 


Ralston, Day. 


Ralston, Thos. 


Ramsey, H. T. 


Rankin, C. ... 


Ranseyer, F. A. 
Ratcliffe, David 


Rathjen, H. ... 
Ray, E. 



Reade, C. 


Reaux, Camille 


Reddiugton, W. R. 
Redwood, Richard 


Reed, Charles H. 


Reere, Thomas 


Regan, Mrs. A. 


Remsyen, Fredk. 


Renwick, Mrs. 


Rettich, David 


Rey, E. 


Richards, F. ... 


Richards, J. ... 


Richards, ... 


Richardson, H. 


Richardson, J. 


Richardson, William . 


Ridout, J. E. ... 


Ridout, Robert 


Righetti, Battista 
Righetti, Joseph 


Riley, K 


Ring, E. 


Roberts, John 


Roberts, J. ... 


Roberta, Mrs. 


Robertson, Geo. 

Robb, John ... 


Robbins, Joseph 


Robbins, J. M. 


Robbins, W 


Robinson, G. W. 


Robinson, James 


Robinson, Mrs. 


Robinson, William . 


Robinson, Wm. 


Roeder C 



Pyrenees, Amphitheatre, Eversley. 
Boorharnan, Wangaratta. 
Goorainadda, Rutherglen. 
Emu Plains, Rutherglen. 

Havelock-road, Beech worth. 
Doncaster East. 
Bannerman-street, Long Gully. 
Three-mile, Beechworth. 

White Hills, Sandhurst. 
Indigo, Chiltern. 
Mooroopna North. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 




St. Andrew, Kangaroo Ground. 


Telford, Yarrawonga. 

Kyabram, Rodney. 



High-street, Sandhurst. 



Barton Farm, Bridgewater-on-Loddon. 



Lake Lonsdale, Stawell. 

Kangaroo Ground, Eltham. 



Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Bailieston, Nagambie. 



Allen's Flat, Yackandandah. 


Docker's Plains, Wangaratta. 

Goorambat East. 

Goorambat Vineyard, Benalla. 





Fairburn Grange, Cashel. 



Warrock, Casterton. 

Carlyle, Rutherglen. 


Kangaroo Flat. 



Concongella South. 

Indigo, Yackandandah, 

Malakoff-road, Beechworth. 


Victoria-street, Long Gully. 




Roffins, Martin 


Rogers, Thos. 


Rolleri, Guiseppe 
Ronchi Polo 


Roset, John ... 


Rosetti, Barnard 


Ross, Chas. M. 


Ross, John G. 


Ross, William 


Ross, William 


Rossia, Thomas 


Rouse, William 


Roustan, E. ... 

Rowan, Andrew 


Rowan, John 


Rowan, John 
Rowe, Edward 


Rowe, Hannibal O. 


Rowe, William 


Rubli, Abraham 


Rubli, Fredk. 


Rubie, Jacob 


Ruske, H 


Ruedin, A. ... 


Ruehe, Antony 
Ruhe, Fritz ... 


Rumbler. A 


Rundel, Mrs. J. 


Rundel, J. T. 


Rundel, M 


Rusconie, Charles 


Rutland, William 


Rutter, J. .. 
Ryan, John .. 


Ryan, M. 


Ryan, Thos. .. 

Ryan, W. 


Ryan, - .. 



Saines, John... 


Saines, Rob. ... 


Salinger, H. ... 


Salvia, Peter... 


Sanders, Theodore .. 
Samblebe, Franz 
Sargentson, John 

4 : 


Sartori, Lazarus 


Sartori, Peter 


Saulter, C. A. 

Scarffe, John 


Scarlett, Wm. 


Sceilly, Thos. 

11 '. 

Schache, E. ... 


Schelisky, Henry 
Scheuffle, L. F. 


Scheuffle, W. 

4 ! 

Schlemme, Wilhelm .. 

Schlink, A. ... 


Schlue, H 


Schluter, Henry 


Schmede, Chas. F. 


Schmitt, Franz 



Ballarat-road, Daylesford. 
Spring Creek, Hepburn. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell West. 

Parkin's Reef-road, Maldon. 

Big Waterhole, Talbot. 
Alabama, Coghill's Creek. 
Porcupine Ridge, Glenlyon. 
Inkerman-road, Beechworth. 

St. Hubert's, Lillydale. 
Bailieston, Nagambie. 

Chiltern West, Rutherglen. 
Bailieston, Nagambie. 
Bailieston, Nagambie. 
View Point Vineyard, Michelston, Tabilk. 
Derrijar, Warracknabeal. 
Huntly Vineyard, Huntly. 
Napoleon Lead. 
Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 
Tarilta, Vaughan. 
Rokewood Junction. 
Fell Timber Creek, Wodonga. 

Bet Bet, Dunolly. 
Nuggetty Gully, Fryerstown. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Almond Grove, Bet Bet. 


Carlyle, Rutherglen. 

Hochhiem Vineyard, Great Western. 


Benevolent Asylum, Ballarat South. 

Lower Three-mile, Beechworth. 

Big Hill, Stawell West. 



Gibson-road, Sandringham. 

Garden Flat, Majorca. 




Reid's Creek, Beechworth. 

Epsom, Huntly. 

Epsom, Huntly. 

California Gully^ 

Huon's Creek, Wodonga. 







Schnider, Jacob 
Schramm, M. 
Schroder, Ernest 
Schuhkraft, G. F. 
Schutt, Hans 
Schutt, Henry 
Schwab, Golfred 
Schwarer, Jos. 
Schweitzer, J. 
Schwind, J. ... 
Scorer, Mrs. M. 
Scott, Alex. ... 
Scott, J. 
Scott, R. F. ... 
Seeber, Christian 
Segar, Ferdinand 
Selletti, ... 
Severino, John 
Severino, John 
Sewell, Martin 
Shaw, E. 


Shaw, Mrs. Sarah 
Shaw, Rinz. ... 
Shaw. Samuel 
Shaw, Saml. ... 

Shelly, Wm 

Shillinglaw, J. J.,& Sons 
Shoebridge, Edwd. ... 
Shoebud, Thos. 
Shoecraft, Godfrey ... 
Siebel, John ... 
Silvester, Eugene 
Simon, A. C. 
Simon, R. 
Simons, George 
Simpson, Mrs. 
Simpson, Thos. 
Sinclair Bros. 
Skene, A. B. 
Skinner, John 
Skyrme, Geo. 
Slade, George 
Small, William 
Smart, Rob. ... 

Smith, A 

Smith, Daniel 

Smith, G. S. and Sons 

Smith, H. P. 

Smith, James Henry ... 

Smith, John ... 

Smith, John Thos. ... 

Smith, J. H. 

Smith, J. 

Smith, Luke 

Smith, Mrs. Christina 

Smith, Thos. 

Snowden, E. G. 

Somerville, Thomas ... 

Somerville, William, jun. 

Somerville, William, sen. 



Surrey Hills, Box Hill. 

Chinaman's Creek, Castlemaine. 
Kangaroo Flat. 
Kangaroo Flat. 
Mitchellston, Nagambie. 
Chiltern West, Rutherglen. 
Barnawartha North. 
Wodonga West. 
Woodlands, Napoleon Lead. 
Somerville, Hastings. 
Kanyapella, via Echuca. 

Mount Beckworth, Clunes. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell. 
Caralulup, Talbot, Lexton. 
Evansford, Talbot. 
Bet Bet. 
Korong Vale. 

Redesdale, North Wangaratta. 
Indigo-road, Chiltern. 
Dumbiedykes, Panton Hill. 
Havelock-road, Beechworth. 
Holmes Creek, Beechworth. 

Green Bank, Bacchus Marsh. 
Middle Creek, Yackandandah. 

Gibson-road, South Brighton. 

St. George Vineyard, Great Western. 
Fairview, Rhym'ney. 
North-road, Brighton. 
Napoleon Lead. 

All Saint's, Wahgunyah. 
Suffolk Hall Vineyard, Strathfieldsaye. 
Hind's Diggings, Redbank. 
Rose Hill, Howlong-road, Chiltern. 
Mundadda Vineyard, Barnawartha. 
Brown's Plains, Rutherglen. 

Daylesford-road, Ballan. 

Monomeath, Canterbury-road, Box Hill. 




Stade, H 


Stafford, Thos. 


Stafford, Wm. 


Stanger, T 




Stawell Vineyard Co. 


Stead, John Jas. 


Steen, John ... 


Stehn, W. ... 


Stephens, Joseph 
Stevenson, Robert 


Stewart, James 


Stewart, J. G. 


Stiggants, Henry 


Stoaker, Heinrich 


Stone, Edward 


Strachen, Thos. 


Stranch, F. G. 


Streckfuss, H. 


Strickfiss, Edward ... 


Stuckensmidth, F. ... 


Sullivan, David 


Sullivan, John 


Summers, Albert 


Summers, G. 


Summers, H. 


Summons, P., sen. 


Summons, P. H. 


Sutherland, D. 


Sutherland, J. 


Sutton, G. ... 


Sutton, Stephen 


Swan, Andrew 


Swanton, William 

Sweeney. Terence 


Swindale, Henry 

Synnott, Mrs. E. M. 


Tahbilk (Chateau) Co. 


Tait, Samuel 


Tait, William 


Tanner, W. ... 




Templeman, William 


Tennant, George 


Tenner, A. ... 


Tenner, James 


Tenner, P. A. 


Tetlow, J. 


Thiele, Gottlieb 


Thomas, Alfred 

Thomas, Francis 

Thomas, T. ... 


Thompson, J. B. 


Thompson, Mary 
Thomson, Patrick 


Thomson, W. K. 


Thorne, Robert 


Thornell, George 


Thornell, Henry 

Thornell, John 


Thornell, J., jun. 


Thornell, Thomas ... 



Deep Lead, Wimmera. 
Fell Timber Creek, Wodonga. 
Baranduda, Yackandandah. 
Watta Wella, Stawell. 
Black Dog Creek, Chiltern. 
Emu Creek, Strathfieldsaye. 
Lowan, Natimuk. 
Three-mile, Beechworth. 
Nillumbik, Kangaroo Grd., Queenstown. 
Teddywaddy, Wycheproof . 
Craigie, Majorca. 
Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
The Delta, Laanecoorie, Eddington. 
Axe Creek, Axedale. 

Eddington, Goornong. 
White Hills, Sandhurst. 
Carlyle, Rutherglen. 
Baranduda, Wodonga. 
Baranduda, Wodonga. 
Baranduda, Yackandandah. 
Baranduda, Yackandandah. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Fell Timber Creek, Wodonga. 

St. Leonard, Wangaratta. 

Runnymede, Elmore. 
Goonawarra, Sunbury. 


Dunolly South. 

View Bank Farm, Boweya, Lake Rowan. 




Kangaroo Flat. 







Fern Hill, Ascot Vale. 

Allen's Flat, Yackandandah. 

Baynton, Kyneton. 

Spring Creek, Beechworth. 

Daylesford-road, Ballan. 

North-road, Brighton. 


Somerville, Hastings. 

Somerville, Hastings. 

Somerville, Hastings. 

Somerville, Frankston. 

Somerville, Hastings. 




Toogood, Jane 


Travarsi, Philip 


Treheir, Nicholas 


Trevise, Benjamin 


Trewella, John 
Tribolet, Abraham ... 


Trimble, Robt. 


Trinkhaus, Albert ... 


Trombold, Henry 


Trotman, John 


Trouette and Blampied 
Trudewind, A. 



Tuckett, J. R. 


Turner, Robt. 


Turnow, William 


Turpia, James 


Twiddy, Robert 


Tyrell, H 


Ubergang, Chas. 
Upton, Christop. . ... 



Upton, W. ... 


Urquhart, James 


Vahland, W. C. 


Valli, Antoni 


Vanina, Charles 


Vanna, James 


Van Staveren, J. C. ... 

Vantravers, Paul 
Veitch, Christopher ... 


Vickers, Ed ward 


Vince, Daniel 


Virgoe, Mrs. 


Vosti, Antonio 


Waldron, Chs. 


Waldron, John 


Walker, Thomas 

Wallace, John 

4 I 

Walsh, Alex. 

Walsh, Thos. 


Ward, J. 

Warnackie, H. 


Warne, Fras. 


Warnecke, C. H. 


Warnicke, C. H. 


Warren, Henry 
Wass, John ... 


Waterson, James 


Watkin, J. F. 


Watson, Hector 


Watson, J. G. 


Watson, W. ... 


Watt, Hugh ... 


Watts, Wm. ... 


Webb, George 


Webb, Wm. 


Webb, W. J. 


Webster, A. ... 


Webster, Joseph 
Webster, R., jun. 



Webster, Rob., sen. ... 


Wehsack, Francis 



Elevated Plains, Hepburn. 
White Hills, Sandhurst. 
Lockwood South, Kangaroo Flat. 
Union-street, Brighton. 
Excelsior Vineyard, Corop. 

Mucklef ord, Castlemaine. 

Federal, Kurraca South, Wedderburn. 
St. Peter's Vineyard, Great Western. 
Nure Creek, Wodonga. 
Rosenberg. Riddell's Creek. 
Lake View, Rutherglen. 
Dane-street, Long Gully. 
Lower Tarwin. 
Boggy Creek, Moyhu, Hedi. 

Doncaster East. 
Lilliput, Rutherglen. 
Gladstone, Rutherglen. 
Doctor's Creek, Stawell West. 

Charter Vineyard, Runnymede, Elmore. 

Goornong South. 


Rock View, Newtown, Beechworth. 


Langi-Ghiran, Ararat. 



Essex Farm, Bridgewater. 

North-road, Brighton. 

Ballarat-road, Guildford. 

Carlyle, Rutherglen. 


McCallum's Creek, Majorca. 

Bullock Creek, Marong. 

Union-street, Brighton. 


Bagshot, Huntly. 

Burnt Creek, Dunolly. 

Kangaroo Flat. 




Vale Hotel, Moonambel-road, Avoca. 

Croft Hill Farm, Baringhup East,Maldon. 

Beaufort-road, Beaufort. 


Walwa, Tintaldra. 

Napoleon Lead. 



Newtown, Beechworth. 

Darling-street, Echuca East. 



Moodemere, Rutherglen. 



Ormond-road, Elwood. 


Weigard, Wm. 

Wendell, C. H. 

Wendell, H. E. 

West, John ... 

Whalley, David 

White, Thos. 

Whitehead, J. R. 

Whitehead, O. 

Whitehead, O. 

Whittingham, Geo. 

Wickam Bros. ... 6 

Wilcot, John ... i 

Wilkins,Jas 20 

Williams, A. J. 3 

Williams Bros. 16 

Williams, Daniel ... 1 

Williams, D.... ... 18 

Williams, Enoch ... 2 
Williams, E. ... 2 

Williams, E 10 

Williams, G 

Williams, H, ... 3 

Williams, Jas. ... 14 
Williams, Joseph H. ... 3 

Williamson, D. Walter 15 
Willis, James 2 

Wills, John J. B. ... 4 

Wilson, Dickenson ... 8 

Wilson, Hector ... 6 

Wilson, John ... 2 

Wilson, M 4 

Wilson, M. ... ... 4 

Wilson, Thomas ... 10 

Wilson, W 3 

Wilson, W. ... ... 3 

Wingfield, Wm. ... 21 

Wingor, William ... 4 

Winks, H 3 

Winter, Frederick ... 3 

Winzar, ... ... 4 

Wise,J 16 

Wittig, Ennis ... 1 

Wood, Thomas ... 1 

Work, William ... 10 

Wornes, William ... 3 

Worthy, Mrs. ... 2 

Wuillemin, Louis ... 8 

Yackovitey, A. ... 1 

Yander, Andrew ... 51 

Yander, Chas. ... 4 

York, Edward ... 3 

Young, Charles ... 10 

Young, John ... 11 

Young, J. F. ... ... 32 

Young, J. ... ... 2 

Young, J. ... ... 11 

Young, Wm. ... 2 

Zander, Andrew ... 3 

Zander, Charles ... 5 

Zerbe, Auguste ... 31 

Zwar, Michael ... 11 

Colbinabbin, Elmore. 

Glen Eira-road, Elsternwick. 
Malakoff-road, Beechworth. 
Indigo, Yackandandah. 
Upper Indigo, Barnawartha. 

Ballington Vineyard, Wodonga. 
Casley- street, Long Gully. 
Gooramadda, Rutherglen. 
Leneva, Wodonga. 
Middle Creek, Moonambel. 
Middle Creek, Wodonga. 
Holmes Creek, Beechworth. 
Leneva, Wodonga. 
Middle Creek, Yackandandah. 

Stony Creek, Tarnagulla. 
Beau Sejour, Eversley. 
South Wangaratta. 
Bolerch, Moonambel. 
Warrakgeep, Eversley. 
Vectis Bridge, Natimuk. 

Upstonville, Mooroopna. 
North Mooroopna. 
North Mooroopna. 
Bullock Creek, Marong. 
Winter's Flat, Castlemaine. 
Axe Creek, Axedale. 
Ballarat South. 
Delta Vineyard, Briagolong. 


Doncaster East. 

Doncaster East. 

Three-mile, Beechworth. 

Nursery Vineyard, Newbridge. 



Jackass Flat, Eaglehawk. 

Parkin's Reef-road, Maldon. 


Doncaster East. 
Doncaster East. 
Doncaster East. 




[ACT No. 1043]. 

[MAY, 1891. ] 

Name. Parish. A. R 

Amies, S. J. P Horsham ... 3 

Aitken, Elizth. ... ... Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Alexander, Jas. ... ... Toolamba ... ... ... ... 10 

Anderson, J. C. ... ... Boning ... ... ... ... 6 

Aston, A. W. ... ... Youanmite ... ... ... ... 30 

Alexander, Josiah ... Terrappee ... ... ... ... 10 

Alexander, Jas. ... ... Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Appleby, A. ... ... Mildura ... ... ... ... 5 

Atkinson, H. ... ... Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Allen, Chas. ... ... Byawatha ... ... ... ... 4 

Anderson, Chas. ... Kanyapella and Wharparilla ... ... 10 

Bernassochi, J. ... ... Woosang ... ... ... ... 4 2 

Braillard.J Tabilk 10 

Buckley, A. K ... ... Norong... ... ... ... ... 27 

Brensing, E Tabilk 1 

Browne, J. H. ... ... Horsham ... ... ... ... 3 2 

Bennett, R. P. ... ... Horsham ... 4 

Baker, Geo. ... ... Berrimal ... ... ... ... 2 

Burrowes, W. ... ... Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 50 

Briggs, Mrs. M. J. ... Lilliput ... ... ... ... 5 

Briggs, R. R. ... ... Norong ... ... ... ... 18 

Baldwin, W. ... ... Girgarre East ... ... 20 

Burke, J Lilliput 12 

Burge, J. T. ... ... Toolamba ... ... ... ... 7 

Bailey, V. ... ... Glenrowen ... ... ... ... 13 

Barlow, J. B. ... ... Barnawartha ... ... ... ... 18 2 

Baumgarten, G. L. ... Barnawartha North ... ... ... 40 

Barnes, G. ... ... Jallukar ... ... ... ... 10 

BracheandCo. .., .. Strathfieldsaye ... ... 12 

Blaikie, A. ... .. Carraragarmungee ... ... ... 18 

Brien, W. R. H. ... .. Wangaratta South ... ... ... 5 

Bowman, M. J. ... .. Bet Bet ... ... ... ... 4 

Batson, G. ... .. Tarranginnie ... ... ... ... 5 

Beck, H. ... .. Gooramadda ... 10 

Boon, John ... .. Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 4 

Bell, R Mooroopna 5 

Brown, D. ... .. Norong ... ... ... ... 4 

Bridgefoot, J. ... Carraragarmungee ... ... ... 20 

Brierley,T. W Chiltern West 13 

Brown, G. H. ... .. Oxley ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Bacon, W. H Glenalbyn ... ... ... ... 1 



Buckland, J. S. ... 
Baum, A. 

Baumgarten, W. G. 
Brown, John 
Bandy, T. 
Baker, Geo. 
Bott, C. 

Brehant, Geo. ., 
Burgess, D. 
Bowman, W. 
Bradley, P. 
Blackburrow, T. 
Briggs, R. R. ... 
Byrne and Barry 
Ballintine, E. 
Baxter, Jno. 
Bailey, E. 
Bourke, J. 
Bromley, C. H. ... 

Cox, Elizh. F. ... 
Chalmers, D. 
Chomley, A. W. .. 
Clayton, VV. 
Campbell, Jno. .. 
Clear, Jno. 
Colvin, H. 
Critchfield, J. 
Crisp, T. E. 
Crosthwaite, A. 
Costello, J. H. ... 
Colvin, J. 
Coster, C. E. P. ... 
Cau, F. D. B. 
Conna, J. 
Chappell, A. 
Cameron, W. 
Clementson, J. .. 
Cameron, C. 
Cordner, G. 
Carson, T. 
Clay, W. 
Cocks, J. S. 
Carolin, M. 
Cooper, J. 
Culham, M. 
Chandler, W. 
Charlesworth, J. 
Caelli, B. 
Cheesley, R. H. ... 
Chandler, Geo., jun. 
Conroy, B. 
Cox, T. J. 
Cuneen, M. 
Corcoran, J. 
Crozier, E. 
Carver, W. A. ... 
Chaffey, Annie A. 
Campbell, T. L. 
Chandler, W, J. 
Curtain, John ... 
Clurey, P. 







Tallygaroopna ... ... ... ... 3 

A. R 



1 2 



Bet Bet 










Dookie... ... ... ... ... 12 

Barnawartha North ... ... ... 6 2 

Carlyle ... ... ... 7 2 

Carlyle ... ... ... ... 6 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 8 

Elmore ... ... ... ... 4 

Wychitella ... ... ... 

Mildura ... ... ... 

Barnawartha ... ... ... 

Lilliput ... ... ... 

Barnawatha North ... ... 

Boorhaman ... ... ... 

Borung ... ... ... 

Mooroopna ... ... ... 

Mildura ... ... 

Bet Bet ... ... ... 

Norong ... ... ... 

Mildura ... ... 

Mildura ... ... ... 

Gooramadda ... ... ... 

Pelluebla ... ... ... 

Boort ... ... ... 

Carlyle ... ... 

Bet Bet ... ... ... 

Mirana Piram ... ... ... 

Huntly ... ... ... 

Bagshot ... ... ... 

Woodstock ... ... ... 

Waggarandall ... ... ... 

Wooragee North ... ... 

Chiltern West ... ... ... ... 20 





1 1 

7 2 

11 2 






4 2 



Carlyle ... ... ... ... 13 2 

Mandurang ... ... ... ... 6 

Huntly ............ 1 2 

Barnawartha South ... ... ... 60 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 16 

Concongella ... ... ... ... 5 

Barnawartha North and South ... ... 42 

Runnymede ... ... ... ... 5 2 

Glenlogie ... ... ... ... 7 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 3 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 10 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 5 

Carraragarmungee ... ... ... 25 

Dookie ... ... ... ... 50 

Youanmite ... } i ... ... 1 

" or TBS ^ 3*^ 



Dudley, F. J. 
Delves, H. 
Derry, J. D. 
Darveniza, T. . 
Delbridge, T. . 
Davis, J. A. T . . 

Day, J 

Dunn, J. 
Dale, A. A. 
I/unne, M. 
Donaldson, J, B. 
Daly, H. O'B. . 
Downie, R., iun. 
Devitt, P. 
Davis, J. B. 
Delminico, G. 
Danaher, W. 
De Bavay, A. . 
Dunstan W. 
Dal ton, T. C. 
Dunstan, W. 
Dormer, J. M. . 
Doig, J.G-. 
Debney, F. W. . 
Dagon, P. S. 

Eldridge, G. 
Eddis, J. E. 
Ellis Bros. 
Elliott, John 
Edleston, J. S. . 
Burns, E. J. 
Elliott, R. 
Edmonds, J. H. . 

Froud, J. 
Foster, J. 
Fraser, A. 
Field, J. R. A. . 
Fisher, T. 
Fealey, G. A. . 
Fraser, Hugh . 
Faulkner, J. 
Fairless, W. 
Finnister, J. 
Fisher, R. 
Filtoe, R. H. 
Foster, J. 
Falvey, E. 
Ferguson, G. 
Field, J. 

Fitzpatrick, M. . 
Forster, T. 
Fortesque, C. 

Gordon, D. 
Grattan, W. 
Governa, B. 
Gordon, G. 
Gibbons, R. 
Geake, J. E. 
Grossman, W. . 
Gilliland, W. . 

Parish. A. R. 

Maryborough ... ... ... ... 1 

Marong ... ... ... ... 3 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 13 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 22 

Huntly ... ... ... ... 4 

Yarrawonga ... ... ... ... 5 1 

Pine Lodge ... ... ... ... 10 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 6 

Wan garatta North ... ... ... 4 

Youanmite ... ... ... ... 14 

Woosang ... ... ... ... 15 

Dunolly ... ... ... ... 6 

Shepparton ... ... ... ... 4 2 

Wooragee North ... ... ... 3 

Shadforth ... ... ... ... 5 

Terrappee ... ... ... ... 20 

Barnawartha South ... ... ... 12 

WooriYallock ... ... ... ... 34 

Tarrawingee ... ... ... ... 2 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 1 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 5 

Norong ... ... ... ... 10 

Oxley 8 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 1 

Wandin Yallock ... ... ... 2 

Norong ... ... ... ... 14 

Kyabram East ... ... ... ... 30 

Lockwood ... ... ... ... 4 

Norong ... ... ... ... 15 

Carapooee ... ... ... ... 1 

Stawell ... ... ... ... 5 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 8 

Carchap ... ... ... ... 6 

Tongala ... ... ... ... 15 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 8 

Timmering ... ... ... ... 5 

Kialla 6 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 3 2 

Byawatha ... ... ... ... 25 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 40 

Woosang ... ... ... ... 10 2 

Baulkamaugh ... ... ... ... 4 

Upotipotpon ... ... ... ... 4 

Chiltern 4 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 5 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 3 

Chiltern West 2 2 

Mysia ... ... ... ... 2 

Quantong ... ... ... ... 2 

Mildura 4 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 4 2 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 6 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 6 2 

Gowangardie ... ... ... ... 45 

Moormbool East ... ... ... 40 

Mildura ... 3 

Taminick ... ... ... ... 4 

Mildura 7 

Wangaratta North ... ... ... 14 

Goormadda ... 10 



Graham, H. P. ... 
Graham, Anne ... 
Gibba, J. 

Gill ham, J. W. ... 
Griffin, A. 
Gassies, J. 
Gray, VV. 
Garrett, M., jun. 
Griffiths, M. 
Greatorex, T. ... 
Groom, H. 
Green, J. 
Gardiner, G. 

Gill, J 

Graham, Geo. ... 
Gray, VV. M. ... 
Gianetti, B. 
Graham, A. 
Gorman, J. M. ... 
Garrard, A. F. ... 
Griggs, J. A. ... 
Gamble, E. N. ... 
Giles, J. 

Hallahan, J." 
Henderson, A. ... 
Halleen, M. 
Henshilwood, J. 
Hamilton, D. G. 
Hossack, J. 
Humphreys, J. ... 
Hintze, G. 
Hughes, W. 
Hoare, C. 
Howard, K. G. 
Harper, J. 
Hicks, W. C. 
Headdey, E. 
Harris, T. H. 
Holmes, J. T. ... 
Hamilton, Mrs. E. 
Howard, J. 
Howell, Margt. ... 
Hurnall, C. 
Hicks, J. 
Hannan, H. 
Heape Bros. 
Henrickson, G. ... 
Hare, VV. T. 
Han sen, H. 
Hill, W. 
Hinton, E. 
Hardie, C. 
Hazell Bros. 
Hughes, M. 
Hanlon, L. 
Hurley, D. 
Hayes, T. 
Hughes, S. 
Harriman, T. 
Hughes, T. I.. 

Parish. A. R. 

Mildura ......... 8 

Carlyle ............ 22 

Gowangardie South ... ... ... 2 2 

Branjee ...... ... ... 2 

Barnawatha ... ... ... ... 4 

Carlyle ... ......... 30 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 7 

Miepoll ............ 3 

Tallygaroopna ... ... ... ... 2 

YabbaYabba ...... . ..... 10 

Berrimal ... ... ... ... 3 

Mandurang ... ... ... ... 6 

Neereman ... ... ... ... 3 

Dookie ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Lilliput ... ... ... ... 5 

Drumanure ... ... ... ... 6 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 4 

Bealiba ... ... ... ... 1 

Kialla ......... . ..... 10 

Yarrawonga ... ... ... 

Mildura ... ... ... 

Mildura ... ... ... 

Watchegatcheca ... ... 

Kewell West 







Lilliput ... ... ... ... 16 

Lilliput ... ... ... ... 11 

Norong ... ... ... ... 18 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 12 

Carlyie ............ 10 

Lilliput ...... ... ... 10 

Carlyle ... ... ... ... 10 

Carlyle ........... 30 

Carlyle ... ... ...... 30 

Mildura ... ...... ... 5 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 6 2 

Toolamba ... ... ... ... 5 2 

Bundalong ... ;.. ... ... 3 

Concongella ... ... ... ... 10 

Kunat Kunat ... ;.. ... ... 30 

Chariton East ... ... ... ... 40 

Concongella South ... ... ... 20 

Betley ............... 1 2 

Lilliput ... ... ... ... 7 

Concongella South ... ... ... 11 

Chiltern West ... ... ... ... 6 2 

Carlyle ...... . ..... 19 

Currawa ... ... ... ... 5 

Moliagul ... ......... 2 

Murchison North ... ... ... 22 

Lurg ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Karrabumet ... ... ... ... 30 

Huntly ......... ... ... 12 

Mooroopna ... ... .'.." ... 6 

Oxley ...... ... ... ... 7 

Barnawartha South ... ... ... 6 

Kotupna ... ... ... ... 10 

Lexington ... ... ... ... 1 2 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 3 2 

Dooen ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Girgarre East ... ... ... ... 9 2 

Barnawartha South 4 



Inchbold, J. 
Ireland, De C. , 
Idiens, A. C. 
Irving, F. 
Inglis, M. 

Jones, W. 
Jeffrey, A. D. . 
Jackson, C. R. , 
Jack, R. 
Johns, G. H. 
Judd, F. W. 
Johns, R., jun. 
Jackson, S. 
Jones, W. 
Jacob, J. 
Johns, Jno. 
Johnston, J. S. .. 
Jackson, H. H. .. 
Johns, R., sen. .. 
Jones, Geo. 
Jones, F. A. 
Jenner, T. B. ... 
Jeffers, Wm. ... 
Jackson, A. 

Kelly, J. 
Konig, H. F. V. 

Kay, E 

Kidston, W. McF. 
King, D. 

Kannenberg, J. H. 
Kelly, Jno. 
Kelly, Martin ... 
Kemp, R. 
Keagle, Isabella... 
Kech, H. 

Kearney, T. D. ... 
Kilburn, J. F. ... 
Keogh, Ed. 
Keyte, Ann 
Knight, G. W. ... 
Kelly, Mich. 

Looney, T. 
Lewis, W. E. ... 
Lawford, W. ... 
Long, W. J. 
Lyons, Mary 
Lennon, J., sen.... 
Lancaster, S. 
Lane, W. 
Lynch, E. 
Lilford, E. 
Lilford, J. 
Lancaster, J. 
Lenne, C. 

Leech, W. H. and T. 
Longstaff, J. 
Lobb, A. 
Lamperd, W. 
Laupmann, G. C. 
Lawson, P. 
Lynn, J. 

Parish. A. R 

Tarrawonga ... ... ... ... 34 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 3 2 

Mildura ... ... 10 

Mildnra ... ... ... ... 8 

Mildura 9 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 25 

Echuca North ... ... ... ... 5 

Drouin West ... ... ... ... 2 

Lilliput ... ... ... ... 40 

Katandra ... ... ... ... 10 

Mildura ... ... 8 

Carchap ... ... ... ... 6 2 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 15 

Taminick ... ... ... ... 3 

Kialla West ... ... 20 

Waggarandall ... ... ... ... 8 

4 2 

Norong ... ... ... ... 5 

Carchap ... :;; ;.. ... 1 2 

Boorhaman ... ... ... ... 6 

Bungalally ... ... ... ... 5 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 2 

Byawatha ... ... ... ... 3 

Ararat ... ... ... ;.. ... 10 

Carlyle... ... ... ,.. ... 30 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 12 

Carlyle ... ... ... ... 14 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 7 3 

Lilliput ... ... ... ... 50 

Woorak ... ... ... ... 6 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 6 

Wodonga ... ... ... ... 50 

Yarrowalla ... ... ... ... 5 

Pine Lodge ... ... ... ... 11 

Sandhurst ... ... ... ... 10 

Gooramgooramgong ... ... ... 6 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Tarrawingee ... ... ... ... 4 

Natimuk ... ... ... ... 5 

Huntly... ... ... ... ... 5 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 24 2 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 9 

Knowsley East ... ... ... ... 14 

Mokoan ... ... ... ... 3 

Elmore... ... ... ... ... 9 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 10 

Barrakee ... ... ... ... 8 

Kyabram East ... ... ... ... 6 

Shadforth ... .-.-.- ... ... 12 

Yarrawonga ... ... ... ... 12 

Tongala ... ... ... ... 17 

Kyabram East ... ... ... ... 2 

Taripta ... ... ... ... 1 

Wharparilla ... ... ... ... 26 

Woosang ... ... .-..- ... 6 

Yackandandah ... ... ... 8 

Wahring ... ... ... ... 4 

Toolleen ... ... ... ... 2 

Mildura ... ... ... ... 4 

Bundalong ... ... ... ... 10 

Concongella ... ... ... ... 4 



Moon, R. J. 
Mason, A. C. 
Martin, J. 
Maddock, J. F. ... 
Meehan, W. 
Murray, A. S. ... 
Morris, G. F. ... 
Mitchell, Mrs. B. 
Maye, J. 
Miller, C. 
Moylan, M. 
Morrison, J. W. 
Madder, J. 
Morrison, Elsie ... 
Magennis, W. J. 
Mayer, K. 
Millman, S. 
Maidling, T. P. ... 
Maidling, F. 
Morris, J. 
Minogue, J. 
Manning, G. H. M. 
Mellis, J. J. 
Mandeville, L. ... 
Mess, Jas. 
Manus, G. S. ... 
Marfleet, J. 
Mellis, A. 
Morin, S. 
Manlieu, P. 
Mannes, A. 
Mayer, J. C. 
Munro, R. 
Moss, F. 

Miller, C. M. ... 
Morley.M.E. ... 
Mellords, Jno. ... 
McKay, J. 
Mclntosh, J. 
Macdonald, W. 
McDonald, H. 
McLennan, A. 
McQuade, J. 
McKinty, T. 
Macguire, T. 
McPherson, R. 
McDonald, C. 
McLennan, K. 
McFadyen, W. L. 
McEvoy, J. 
McCartie, J. 
McBean, S. 
MacKay,F.C. ... 
McNeil, J. C. ... 
McPherson, J. ... 
McEae, M. 
McMahon, T. ... 
McDonald, A. H. 
McKinnon, C. ... 
McGuan, J. 
Mackereth, E. H. 
McDonald, J., sen. 

Parish A. H. 

Bungalally ... ... ... ... 20 

Shepparton ... ... ... ... 50 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 15 < 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 2 

Lilliput 16 

Mildura 30 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 50 

Lilliput 25 

Mildura 6 

Karrabumet ... ... ... ... 50 

Currawa ... ... ... ... 18 

Wangaratta North ... ... ... 1 2 

Mooroopna ... ... ... ... 3 

Wangaratta North ... ... ... 2 2 

YabbaYabba 8 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 4 2 

Huntly 2 

Barambogie ... ... ... ... 10 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 10 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 5 

Estcourt ... ... ... ... 8 

Horsham ... ... ... ... 4 

Kyabram ... ... .,. ... 5 

Wedderburn 5 2 

Nillumbik 3 

Wodonga ... ... ... ... 8 

Tarrowalla ... ... ... ... 5 

Kyabram East ... ... ... 2 

Wombat ... ... ... ... 4 

Borung ... ... ... ... 2 

Strathfieldsaye ... ... 5 

Shadforth 5 2 

TJndera ... ... 10 

Maldon ... ... ... 1 

Mildura 5 

Carlyle... ... ... ... ... 31 

Horsham ... , v . % 1 

Chiltern West ... ... ... 10 

Tabilk ... ... ... 20 

Lilliput... ... ... ... ... 12 

Dunmunkle ... ... ... 6 

Lilliput... ... > ... ... 50 

Norong... ... ... ... ... 15 

Boorhaman ... ... ... ... 20 

Norong... ... ... ... ... 19 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 25 

Wingalook ... ... ... ... 7 2 

Mooroopna West ... ... ... 15 

Arapiles ... ... ... ... 17 

Lilliput... 15 

Lilliput ... ... 7 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 20 

Warragul ... ... ... ... 1 

TJndera... ... ... ... ... 6 

Bontherambo ... ... ... ... 6 

Gooramadda ... ... ... ... 9 

Strathfieldsaye ... ... 2 2 

Wangaratta ... ... ... ... 10 

Carapooee West... ... ... ... 5 

Concongella South ... ... .... 6 

Avoca ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Glenloth 3 






McGuinness, A. 

Mount Cole 


McMillan, Mrs. M. 



Newsom, J. 

Barnawartha South 

... 20 

Nash, E. 


... 22 

Neilson, J. 
Newman, H. 

Lilliput and Norong 

... 50 

Nott, W. 



Nugent, C. 



Nolan, J. 

... 11 

Nelson, J. A. 



Nickinson, J. N. 



Nason, G. S. 

Ararat ... 


Nicholls, T. A. and H. E. 

Waaia ... 

... 24 

North, Geo 



Newton, S. 



Newcomen, W., jun. 


... 11 

Nonmus, W. 


... 10 

O'Donoghue, F. 

Brimin ... 

... 20 




Owen, J. 

Boort ... 



O'Dwyer, J. J. ... 



Oliver, J. L. 


... 12 

O'Connor, J. 



Oats, D. 

Wooragee North 


O'Grady, J 


... 44 

O'Loughlin, J. ... 



Pearce, John 

Bontherambo ... 


Porter, Z. 

... 10 

Pogue, S. 


... 7 

Putland, G. 



Pearce, J. 



Pearce, W. R. ... 

Tallygaroopna ... 

... 10 

Pressley, C. 



Power, J. 


Plum, L. J. 


Patullo, J. 


... 20 

Piper, J. 

... 10 

Poustie, A. 





... 13 

Price, W. 

... 20 

Payne, F. W. ... 




Pointing, T. H. ... 



Pycroft, H. C. ... 


... 10 

Pleming, T. H. C. 

Bontherambo ... 


Quarrell, J. 



Quinn, W. 



Quincy, A. S. 



Ratford, J. ... 



Ridout, J. E 




Rowcroft, A. P 


... 14 

Ruche, F. 


... 12 

Robinson, G. W. 


... 17 

Rean, C. 


... 36 

Raeburn, J. 



Ramseyer, F. A. 


... 10 

Rankin, C. H 

Bontherambo ... 

... 24 

Reynolds, T 








Ruedin, A. L. 

Huntly ... 

... 10 

Roach, C 



Ryan, M. 

Bet Bet... 

... 12 

Ribbons, S. 




Robinson, J. 
Rough, J. C. 

Concongella South 



Robinson, A. 



Roberts, E. J. 



Ritchie, J. B. 


... 10 


Rawlings, T. E. . . 


... 10 


Rundell, M. 

Strathfieldsaye ... 


Skinner and Anderson ... 


... 15 


Staniland, E. W. 


... 12 


Spawn, A. F. 

Dooen ... 


Scott, J. B. 




Shillinglaw, John J. 

Panton Hill 


Shillinglaw, E. B. 

Panton Hill 


Shillinglaw, J. C. 

Panton Hill 


Shillinglaw, F. F. 

Panton Hill 


Spencer, T. W. B. 



Scott, T. 


... 10 


Stanton, J. L. ... 



Schluter, H. 



Sewell, W 

Bet Bet 



Smith, G. S. 



Shields, W. 



Smith, D. 



Schlue, H., and Sons 


... 34 

Southon, G. 



Stevenson, A. ... 


... 15 

Simms, A. J. 

Bontherambo ... 


Stocker, H. 


... li 

Smith, P. 



Shaw, Sarah 
Scandelera, G. ... 

Teddy waddy ... 


Sim, J 

Pine Lodge 

... 10 

Somerville, J. ... 



Simpson, P. N. ... 

Euroa ... 


Strachan, West, and Co. 



Shea, T. 

Ararat ... 


Stones, M. 



Swan, A., and Sons 



Shaw, J. 



Schwab, G 




Stuart, W. C. ... 


... 10 

Small, J. 



Skipper, F. J 



Stevenson, H. ... 



Somerville, T. ... 

Strathfieldsaye ... 



Simpson, D. 



Skyrme, Geo. ... 
Sallinger, E. J 

Concongella South 


Tobin, M 


... 13 

Tomlinson, H. G. 


... 10 

Tafft, G. 


... 22 

Thompson, W. ... 

Strathmerton ... 


Taylor, A. 



Telford, J. R 



Tye, Wm 

Whroo ... 



Threlfall, R 






Taylor, R. S. ... 
Tanner, D. 
Thompson, J. L. 
Thompson, R. ... 
Tickner, H. 
Tickner, F. D. ... 
Tanner, J. 
Tanner, W. 
Thompson, A. D. 
Tolley, G. H. ... 
Taggart, W. 
Trduette and Blampied 

Upton, C. 
Uhthoff, W. T. ... 

Vaughan, J. 

Wilson, J. B. 
Whiting, E. 
Wickham Bros. 
Wilkinson, H. J 
Wilson, W. M. 
Wilson, C. D. 
Walsh, D. 
Withers, T. 
Williams, J. 
Wilson, A. 
Wilson, M. 
Williams, H. 
Woollett, G. J. 
Waite, J. T. 
Wise, G. 
Wales, C. 
Wall, F. 
Worland, C. 
Whelan, F. 
Walther, J. R. 
Wicks, A. J. 
White, J. 
White, E. S. 
Webb, A. W. 
Waddington, J. 
Wallis, W. 
Walker, Y. 
Wenke, M. 
Walsh, J. D. 
Wallace, C. 
Wormwell, E. 
Wuillemin, L. 

Young, T. 
Young, Wm. 
Young, J. 
Young, W. J. 


A. B 

Barnawartha North 

15 2 


... 19 



9 2 



Barnawartha ... 






6 2 






... 40 







Barp ... 

... 10 




... 10 










... 14 


... 10 2 



... 25 


... 20 

Carrara garmun gee 









2 o 











2 2 





Chiltern West 



... 12 






... 26 

Boola Boloke ... 


7 2 


5 2 


Ill i 

o I 


6 6 

H O 



Adironda, 59 

Alicante, 39 

Alicante Bouschet, 33 

Aliens, Hybrid, 63 

Altitude, effect on climate 20 

Alvey, 63 

American vines as stocks to graft on, 134 

distinctive characters of 

leaves, 54 

foxy taste of fruit, 53 
i, resistance opposed to phyl- 

loxera, 53 
Ampehdese, 1 
Ampelography, 29 
Anna, 57 

Antiquity of viticulture, 1 
Annular incision, 128 
Aramon, 30 
Aromatic taste of objectionable character 

diminished by subsoiling, 75 
Arragonais (see Grenache), 39 
Arrangement of vines 82 
Arrouya (see Carmenet), 34 
Aspect, 20 
Aspiran, 31 
Aspiran Bouschet, 33 
Assimilation, 10 
Aucarot, 32 

aSKSsaat-* 4s 

i^3*&""' 1W * 
Auxoit (see Pinot Gris), 45 


Balafant (see Tokay), 50 
Baloutzat (see Malbeck), 
Balzac (see Mataro), 41 

Bark, 5 

Baxter's Sherry, 32 

Beaunois (see Pinot Blanc Chardonay), 45 
Bergeron (see Roussanne), 47 
Beurot (see Pinot Gris), 45 
Bigney (see Merlot), 41 
Bignona (see Dolcetto), 37 
Black Cluster (see Pinot Noir) 44 
Black German (see Canby's August), 60 
Hamburg, 32 
July (see Devereux), 56 
Muscadine (see Flowers) 63 
Prince, 32 
St. Peter, 32 

Spanish (see Jacquez), 56 
Blanc Fume' (see Sauvignon), 48 
Blanche Feuille (see Meunier), 45 
Blanquette (see Clairette) 36 
Blauer Klavner (see Pinot Noir), 44 
PI "v Trollin & er (* Black Hamburg), 32 
Blocks, extent and disposition of, 86 
Blussart (see Pulsart), 46 
Bois dur (see Carignane) 34 
Bois Jaune (see Grenache), 39 
Botanical description of vines, 1 
Boudales (see Cinsaut), 36 
Bourdales (see Cinsaut), 36 

Bouchet Hybrids, 32 
Boutelon (see Pedro Ximenes), 46 
Breton (see Carmenet), 34 
Bucnardt's Prince (see Aramon), 30 
Bullace (see Scuppernong), 63 

,, (see Vitis Rotundifolia), 62 
Bullet (see Taylor), 62 
toilet Grape (see Vitis Rotundifolia), 62 
Burdekm vine (see Vitis Opaca) 65 
Burger Blanc (see Gouais), 38 
Burgundy (see Pinot), 44 

" of. Georgia (see Pauline), 57 

Miller's (see Pinot Meunier), 45 
Noir ). 

White (see Pinot Blanc), 45 

Cabernet Franc (see Carmenet), 34 

' M Sauvignon, 33 
Calcareous soils 25 

Candive (see Shi'raz), 48 

Carignan (see Carignane), 34 

Carmenet, 34 

Catalan (see Carignane), 34 

(see Mataro), 41 
Catawba, 60 

;Chaintres" system of pruning, 120 

vi*u..i,tut vo ovatcui Ol 

Charnet (see Mataro), 4 

Chasselas, 35 

de Falloux, 35 

de Fontainebleau, 35 

Golden, 35 


Musque", 36 
Red (see Malbeck), 40 
Rose 36 

Violet, 36 

Chrupka (see Chasselas), 35 

preferred to com- 


Cissus Antarctica (see Vitis Baudiniana), 65 

Clay soils, 25 
Clearing, 77 
Climate, 16 

Vialla (see Vialla), 64 
Cognac grape (see Folle), 37 
Colombier (see Semillon), 48 
Commercial considerations, 67 
Concord, 60 

Conforogo (see Sultana), 49 
Cordifolia Solonis (see Soloi 


Corinth Currant, 36 
Cot (see Malbeck), 40 
Cotticour (see Clairette), 36 
" Coulure," 12 
Crabutet (see Merlot), 41 
Crignane (see Carignane), 34 
" Crossettes," 89 
Crowns, height of, 105 
Cunningham, 55 
Cultivation, 130 

,, effect on vitality of vine, 2 
,, preliminary, must be deep, 74 
,, must follow irrigation, 20 
Currant, Corinth, 36 

Zante, 51 
Cuttings, 88 

selection of, 89 

length of, 90 

single eye, 91 

preservation of, 92 

stratification of, 93 

means of facilitating emission of 
roots, 94 
Cuttings or rooted vines, 98 

planting in vineyard, 99 
, inclination of, 99 
Cynthiana, 56 

Delaware, 64 
Devereux, 56 
Diana, 60 
Dibble, 100 
Disbudding, 122 
Dolcetto Nero, 37 
Doradillo, 37 

Edel Clavner (we Pinot Gris), 45 

Elbling (see Gouais), 38 

Elsinburgh, 56 

Elvira, 64 

English cleft graft, 137 

Enrageat (see Fplle), 37 

Epinette (see Pinot Blanc Chardonay), 45 

Epiran (see Aspiran), 31 

Espagnin (see Cinsaut), 36 

Espar (see Mataro), 41 

Espart (see Mataro), 41 

Esparte (see Mataro), 41 

Estrangey (see Malbeck), 40 

European vines, 30 

grafting on American stocks, 137 
Extent and disposition of blocks, 85 

Factors influencing growth and products of 

vine, 15 

Fall of leaves, 14 
Fecundation of the ovule, 12 
Feigentraube (see Sauvignon), 48 
Fendant (see Chasselas), 35 
First region, 70 
Flouron (see Mataro), 41 
Flower, botanical description, 6 

,, anormal forms of, 7 
Flowering, 12 
Flowers, 63 

Foex, recommends irrigation of vineyards, 19 
opinion on value of different grafting 

stocks, 138 
Folle, 37 
Forest devil, 77 
Forming young vine, 105 
Fox Grape (see Vitis Labrusca), 59 
" Foxy taste," of American grapes, 43 
Franc Pinot (see Pinot Noir), 44 

Frankenthal (see Black Hamburg), 32 

Frauentraube (see Chasselas), 35 

Friability necessary in soil, 22 

Fromenteau (see Roussanne), 47 

Fromentot (see Pinot Gris), 45 

Frontignac (see Muscat de Frontignan), 43 

Frontignan (see Muscat de Frontignan), 43 

Frost, advantage of late budding varities, 28 
,, pruning retarded in consequence, 121 
grape (see Vitis Cordifolia), 58 

Furmint (see Tokay), 50 

Gamay, 38 

Noir, 38 
Nicholas, 38 
d'Orleans, 38 

in Beaujolais, 27 

Gentil Aromatique (see Riesling), 46 
Goethe, 64 

Golden Chasselas (see Chasselas), 35 
Gooseberry system, 124 
Gordo Blanco (see Muscat Gordo Blanco), 43 
Gouais, 38 

Goulu Blanc (see Semillon), 48 
Gourdoux (see Malbeck), 40 
" Gout de terroir," 105 
Gouveio (see Verdeilho), 51 
Graft, ordinary cleft, 136 
English cleft, 137 
splice, 137 
Grafting, 134 

,, diminishes non setting of fruit, 134 
,, time for, 138 
Granaxa (see Grenache), 39 
Granitic soils, 25 
Gr&lelin (see Maccabeo), 40 
Grenache, 39 

Gris Cordelier (see Pinot Gris), 45 
Gros Cabernet (see Carmenet), 34 
Gamay (see Gamay), 38 
Noir (see Tinto), 49 
Plant Dore" (see Morrillon), 43 
Grosse Chalosse (see Folle), 37 

Vindure (see Carmenet), 34 
Gutedel (see Chasselas), 35 
Guyot system of pruning, 117 
,, opinion on topping, 124 

Hailstorms, 69 

Hart (see Devereux), 56 

Height of vines, 105 

Heat, influence of, 17 

Hermitage, red (see Shiraz), 48 

white (see Roussanne), 47 

Herbemont, 56 

Herbemont's Madeira (see Herbemont), 56 
Hoeing, 132 
Hybrids, 63 

Hybridization of vine, 32 
Hyde's Eliza, 60 

Iron, its influence on colour of wine, 26 

Irrigation of vineyards, 18 

practised in France and Switzer- 
land, 19 

Isabella, 60 

Israella, 60 

Ives' Seedling, 60 

Ives, 60 
Madeira, 60 

Ivanhoe, white (see Shepherd's Riesling), 47 

Jaen Blanc (see Doradillo), 37 

Jacquez, 56 

Jack (see Jacquez), 56 


Kittredge (see Ives' Seedling), 60 
fKechmish (see Sultana), 49 

JLabrusca (see Vitis Labrusca), 59 
La Souys (see Solonis), 61 
Lateral shoots, 4 
Latitude, influence of, 20 
Layering, 94 

,, reversed, 96 
,, multiple, 96 
Laying out of vineyard, 80 
Leader, selection of, 116 
Leaves, 5 

importance of, in ripening of fruit, 13 

stripping, 128 
Length of cuttings, 90 
Lenoir (see Devereux), 56 

,, (see Jacquez), 56 
Levraut (see Pinot Gris), 45 
Light, importance of, 20 
Limestone soils, 25 
Lincoln (see Devereux), 56 
Lindley, 64 

Listan (see Sweet Water), 49 
Little Sweet Mountain (see Vitis Berlandieri), 57 
Locust, 70 
Logan, 61 
Long pruning, 115 
Long (see Cunningham), 55 
Long's Arkansas (see Solonis), 61 

Maccabeo, 40 

Maitre Noir (see Morrillon), 43 

Malaga, 40 

Malaga (see Semillon), 48 

Malbeck, 40 

Malbeck bears better grafted on Solonis, 135 

Maldoux (see Mondeuse), 42 

.Malvoisie, 41 

(see Pinot Gris), 45 
Marking out before planting, 85 
Marsanne, 47 
Martha, 61 

Marzemina Bianca (see Chasselas), 35 
Mataro, 41 

,, (see Carignane), 34 

(see Morrastel), 42 
Maxatawney, 61 
McCandless (see Jacquez), 56 
McLean (see Devereux), 56 
-Merlot, 41 

Mescle (see Pulsart), 46 
Meunier (see Pinot Meunier), 45 
Miles, 61 

" Millerandage," 13 

Miller's Burgundy (see Pinot Meunier), 45 
Mission Grape, 42 

Missouri Bird's Eye (see Elsinburgh), 56 
Mixed pruning, 118 
Moisture, 17 

cultivation retains, 131 
:Molette (see Mondeuse), 42 
Mondeuse, 42 

Monteith (see Canby's August), 60 

Morrillon, 43 

Blanc (see Pinot Blanc Chard onay), 45 

Noir (see Pinot Noir), 44 

Taconn6 (see Pinot Meunier), 45 

Morrastel, 42 

Mountains, their influence on climate, 21 

Mourrastel (see Morrastel), 42 

Mourvedre (see Mataro), 41 

Mouteuse (see Mondeuse), 42 

Mueller, Sir F. von, description of Australian 
vines, 65 

Mulching, 131 

Multiple layering, 96 

Muscadine, (see Vitis Rotundifolia), 62 

Muscats, 43 

Muscat de Frontignan, 43 

,, of Alexandria (see Muscat Gordo 
Blanco), 43 

Muscat Gordo Blanco, 43 
Mustang (see Vitis Candicans), 58 

Navarre (see Cabernet Sauvignon). 33 
Nebbiolo (see Dolcetto Nero), 37 
Neil's Grape .(see Herbemont), 56 
New Zealand Flax for tying vines, 127 
Nipping off terminal bud, 127 
Noir de Pressac (see Malbeck), 40 
Noirien (see Pinot Noir), 44 
Non-setting of fruit, 12 

,, ,, diminished by annular 
incision, 128 
Non-setting of fruit diminished by disbudding, 

Non-setting of fruit diminished by grafting, 

Non-setting of fruit diminished by late prun- 
ing, 121 

Norton (see Cynthiana), 56 

Norton's Virginia (see Cynthiana), 56 

Northern Fox Grape (see Vitis Labrusca), 59 

Number of vines per acre, 82 

,, with square system, 83 

Number of vines per acre, rectangular system, 

Number of vines per acre, quincunx, 84 

Oeillade, 44 

Okorszem Kek (see Aramon), 30 
Oporto (see Tinto), 49 
Ouillade (see Oeillade), 44 

Passolina (see Zante Currant), 51 

Pauline, 67 

Payne's Early (see Isabella), 60 

Peaty soils, 26 

Pedro Jimenez (see Pedro Ximenes), 46 

Pedro Ximenes, 46 

Perkins, 61 

Pero Ximen (see Pedro Ximenes), 46 

Perpignan (see Morrastel), 42 

Persaigne (see Mondeuse), 42 

Petiole, structure of, 5 

Petit Bouschet, 33 

Petit Cabernet (see Cabernet Sauvignon), 33 

Petit fer (see Carmenet), 34 

Phormium Tenax for tying vines, 127 

Phylloxera resistance of American vines, 52 

Physiology of the vine, 9 

Picardan (see Cinsaut), 36 

Picpouille Blanc (see Folle), 37 

" Pincement," 127 

Pinot, 44 

Blanc, 45 

Chardonay, 45 

in Burgundy district, 27 

Gris, 45 

Meunier, 45 

Noir, 44 
Piran (see Aspiran), 31 
Plant d'Arbois (see Pulsart), 46 

Dor< (see Pinot Blanc Chardonay) 45 

d'Arcenant (see Gamay), 38 

de Grece (see Folle), 37 

Madame (see Folle), 37 

Medoc (see Merlot), 41 


Plant de Seyssel (see Roussanne), 47 

Planting, 98 

cuttings in vineyard, 99 
,, ,, nursery, 101 

,, rooted vines in vineyard, 103 
time for, 99 

Plateado (see Doradillo), 37 

Plateadillo (see Doradillo), 37 

Plough, subsoil, 77 

Ploughing, 130 

Plutonic soils, 25 

Potash, necessity for, 24 

Poulsart (see Pulsart), 46 

Preliminary cultivation, 74 

depth of in France, 75 

Preparation of soil, 74 

Prolific buds on vine, 111 

Propagation of the vine, 88 

Pruning, 110 

for young vines, 107 
long or sh 

long or short, 112 

short spur, 113 

mixed, 118 

rod, 115 

system giving great extension, 119 

time for, 120 

instruments for, 121 
, summer, 122 
Pulliat's periods of ripening, 30 
Pulsart, 46 

Queue de Renard (see Maccabeo), 40 
Quincunx, 83 

Rainfall of Europe compared with ours, 69 

Rebecca, 61 

Rectangular rows, 84 

Red Chasselas (see Malbeck), 40 

Hermitage (see Schiraz), 48 

Lenoir (see Pauline), 57 

Muncy (see Catawba), 60 

,, Wines, demand for, 68 

River (see Cynthiana), 56 
Redpndal (see Grenache), 39 
Regions, division of colony into, 21 
Respiration, 11 
Revalaire (see Aramon), 30 
Reversed layering, 96 
Riesling, 46 

Shepherd's, 47 
Riparia (see Vitis Riparia), 61 
Ripening of Grapes, 14 
Rise of sap, 10 

River Grape (see Vitis Riparia), 61 
Rivesaltes (see Grenache), 39 
Riveyran (see Aspiran), 31 
Roads in vineyard, 86 
Roanoake (see Scuppernong), 63 
Rock Grape (see. Vitis Rupestris), 63 
Rod pruning, 115 
Rome Noir (see Tinto), 49 
Roots of vine, 3 
Rossling (see Riesling), 46 
Roussanne, 47 
Roussilon (see Grenache), 39 
Rupestris (see Vitis Rupestris), 63 
Rushes for tying vines, 126 

Salem, 64 

Salerne (see Cinsaut), 36 

Salvagnin Noir (see Pinot Noir), 44 

Samboton (see Isabella), 60 

Sand grape (see Vitis Riparia), 61 

Sandy soils, 25 

Sauvignon, Red (see Cabernet Sauvignon), 33 

Sauvignon, White, 48 

Savoyanne (see Mondeuse), 42 

Scarifiers, 132 

Schiraz (see Shiraz), 48 

Schistose soils, 25 

Schwartzer Trollinger (see Black Hamburg), 32' 

Scientific considerations must guide vine- 
grower in a new country, 16 

Scion, 136 

choice of, 138 

Scuppernong, 63 

Second region, 72 

Seedlings, raising of, 88 

variability of, 29 

Selection of cuttings, 89 

Semillon, 48 

Serine (see Shiraz), 48 

Shepherd's Riesling, 47 

Shiraz, 58 

Shoots, 4 

Short spur pruning, 113 

Singleton (see Catawba), 60 

Sirac (see Shiraz), 48 

Sirrah (see Shiraz), 48 

Site, selection of, 66 

Smarts (see Edinburgh), 56 

Soil, physical and chemical properties of, 22 
preparation of, 74 

Solonis, 62 

Spar (see Matarp), 41 

Spiran (see Aspiran), 31 

Splice graft, 137 

Spofford Seedling (see Tokaylon), 61 

Square system, 83 

Stakes, 126 

Stem, 3 

structure of, 5 
,, forming of, 106 

Stomata, 6 

Stratification of cuttings, 93 

Stripping off leaves, 128 

Subsoiling, 76 

Subsoil plough, 77 

Sugar grape (see Vitis Rupestris), 63 

Sultana, 49 

Sultanieh (see Sultana), 49 

Summer cultivation, 130 

Summer grape (see Vitis JEstivalis), 55 

Summer pruning, 122 

Sunn Fie (see Sauvignon), 48 

Surret Mountain (see Vitis Berlandieri), 57 

Surrounding circumstances, importance of, 16 

Sussling (see Chasselas), 35 

Sweet water, 49 

Sweet wines, 67 

Syra, (see Shiraz), 48 

Taylor, 62 

Taylor's Bullit (see Taylor), 62 

Teinturier (see Tinto), 49 

Tendrils, 8 

Terret Bouschet, 33 

Third region, 73 

Thomas, 63 

Thurmond (see Devereux), 56 

Tinta Francisca (see Tinto), 49 

Tinto, 49 

Tokay, 50 

Tokaylon, 61 

Topping, 123 

injurious effects of, 125 
Transpiration, 10 
Trellised vines, 85 

overhead, 120 

relative cost of, 126 


Trenching; 76 

Tuley (see Devereux), 56 

Tying up vines, 126 

Ugni Blanc (see Maccabeo), 40 

Noir (see Aramon), 30 
Ulliade (see Oeillade), 44 

Noir (see Cinsaut) 
Uva d'Acqui (see Dolcetto), 37 

Valais Blanc (see Chasselas), 35 
Variety, its influence on wine, 27 

,, must be adapted to other conditions, 
choice of, 66 
Veins, 6 
Veraison, 14 
Verdai (see Aspiran), 31 
Verdal 31 
Verdeilho, 51 
Verdot, 50 

Veronais (see Carmenet), 34 
Vialla, 64 
Viticulture, antiquity of, 1 

,, soils suitable for, 25 

Vitis Acetosa, 65 

^Estivalis, 55 

Antarctica (see Vitis Baudiniana), 65 

Arizonica, 65 

Baudiniana, 65 

Berlandieri, 58 

Californica, 58 

Candicans, 58 

Cinerea, 58 

Cordifolia, 58 

Hypoglauca, 65 
Labrusca, 59 

Vitis Opaca, 65 

Riparia, 61 

Rotundifolia, 62 

Rupestris, 63 

Vinifera, 30 

Vulpina (see Vitis Rotundifolia), 65 
Vitraille (see Merlot), 41 

Vuidure Sauvignonne (see Cabernet Sauvig- 
non), 83 

Warren (see Herbemont), 56 

Warrenton (see Herbemont), 56 

White Burgundy (see Pinot Blanc), 45 
Hermitage (see Roussanne), 47 
Ivanhoe (see Shepherd's Riesling), 47 
Muscadine (see Scuppernong), 63 
Nice (see Sweetwater), 49 
Pinot (see Pinot Blanc), 45 
Syrian (?) (see Doradillo), 37 

Wilder, 64 

Wild Riparia, 62 

Winter cultivation, 130 

Winds, 69 

Winter grape (see Vitis Cordifolia), 58 

Wire, training vine on, 120 

Wood upon which fruit grows, 110 

Woodward (see Isabella), 60 

Worthington (gee Clinton), 61 

Wyman (see Tokaylon), 61 

York's Madeira (see Canby's August), 60 
Yellow Muscadine (see Scuppernong), 63 

Zante Currant, 51 

Zinfandel, 52 

Zierfhandler Rother (see Zinfandel), 52 




By Authority: ROBT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne.